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Context

public abstract class Context
extends Object

java.lang.Object
   ↳ android.content.Context
Known Direct Subclasses
Known Indirect Subclasses


Interface to global information about an application environment. This is an abstract class whose implementation is provided by the Android system. It allows access to application-specific resources and classes, as well as up-calls for application-level operations such as launching activities, broadcasting and receiving intents, etc.

Summary

Constants

String ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AccessibilityManager for giving the user feedback for UI events through the registered event listeners.

String ACCOUNT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AccountManager for receiving intents at a time of your choosing.

String ACTIVITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ActivityManager for interacting with the global system state.

String ALARM_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AlarmManager for receiving intents at a time of your choosing.

String APPWIDGET_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AppWidgetManager for accessing AppWidgets.

String APP_OPS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AppOpsManager for tracking application operations on the device.

String AUDIO_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AudioManager for handling management of volume, ringer modes and audio routing.

String BATTERY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a BatteryManager for managing battery state.

int BIND_ABOVE_CLIENT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): indicates that the client application binding to this service considers the service to be more important than the app itself.

int BIND_ADJUST_WITH_ACTIVITY

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): If binding from an activity, allow the target service's process importance to be raised based on whether the activity is visible to the user, regardless whether another flag is used to reduce the amount that the client process's overall importance is used to impact it.

int BIND_ALLOW_OOM_MANAGEMENT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): allow the process hosting the bound service to go through its normal memory management.

int BIND_AUTO_CREATE

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): automatically create the service as long as the binding exists.

int BIND_DEBUG_UNBIND

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): include debugging help for mismatched calls to unbind.

int BIND_EXTERNAL_SERVICE

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): The service being bound is an isolated, external service.

int BIND_IMPORTANT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): this service is very important to the client, so should be brought to the foreground process level when the client is.

int BIND_NOT_FOREGROUND

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): don't allow this binding to raise the target service's process to the foreground scheduling priority.

int BIND_WAIVE_PRIORITY

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): don't impact the scheduling or memory management priority of the target service's hosting process.

String BLUETOOTH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a BluetoothManager for using Bluetooth.

String CAMERA_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CameraManager for interacting with camera devices.

String CAPTIONING_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CaptioningManager for obtaining captioning properties and listening for changes in captioning preferences.

String CARRIER_CONFIG_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CarrierConfigManager for reading carrier configuration values.

String CLIPBOARD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ClipboardManager for accessing and modifying ClipboardManager for accessing and modifying the contents of the global clipboard.

String CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ConnectivityManager for handling management of network connections.

String CONSUMER_IR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ConsumerIrManager for transmitting infrared signals from the device.

int CONTEXT_IGNORE_SECURITY

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): ignore any security restrictions on the Context being requested, allowing it to always be loaded.

int CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): include the application code with the context.

int CONTEXT_RESTRICTED

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): a restricted context may disable specific features.

String DEVICE_POLICY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DevicePolicyManager for working with global device policy management.

String DISPLAY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DisplayManager for interacting with display devices.

String DOWNLOAD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DownloadManager for requesting HTTP downloads.

String DROPBOX_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DropBoxManager instance for recording diagnostic logs.

String FINGERPRINT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a FingerprintManager for handling management of fingerprints.

String HARDWARE_PROPERTIES_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a HardwarePropertiesManager for accessing the hardware properties service.

String INPUT_METHOD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a InputMethodManager for accessing input methods.

String INPUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a InputManager for interacting with input devices.

String JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a JobScheduler instance for managing occasional background tasks.

String KEYGUARD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NotificationManager for controlling keyguard.

String LAUNCHER_APPS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LauncherApps for querying and monitoring launchable apps across profiles of a user.

String LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LayoutInflater for inflating layout resources in this context.

String LOCATION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LocationManager for controlling location updates.

String MEDIA_PROJECTION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaProjectionManager instance for managing media projection sessions.

String MEDIA_ROUTER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaRouter for controlling and managing routing of media.

String MEDIA_SESSION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaSessionManager for managing media Sessions.

String MIDI_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MidiManager for accessing the MIDI service.

int MODE_APPEND

File creation mode: for use with openFileOutput(String, int), if the file already exists then write data to the end of the existing file instead of erasing it.

int MODE_ENABLE_WRITE_AHEAD_LOGGING

Database open flag: when set, the database is opened with write-ahead logging enabled by default.

int MODE_MULTI_PROCESS

This constant was deprecated in API level 23. MODE_MULTI_PROCESS does not work reliably in some versions of Android, and furthermore does not provide any mechanism for reconciling concurrent modifications across processes. Applications should not attempt to use it. Instead, they should use an explicit cross-process data management approach such as ContentProvider.

int MODE_NO_LOCALIZED_COLLATORS

Database open flag: when set, the database is opened without support for localized collators.

int MODE_PRIVATE

File creation mode: the default mode, where the created file can only be accessed by the calling application (or all applications sharing the same user ID).

int MODE_WORLD_READABLE

This constant was deprecated in API level 17. Creating world-readable files is very dangerous, and likely to cause security holes in applications. It is strongly discouraged; instead, applications should use more formal mechanism for interactions such as ContentProvider, BroadcastReceiver, and Service. There are no guarantees that this access mode will remain on a file, such as when it goes through a backup and restore.

int MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE

This constant was deprecated in API level 17. Creating world-writable files is very dangerous, and likely to cause security holes in applications. It is strongly discouraged; instead, applications should use more formal mechanism for interactions such as ContentProvider, BroadcastReceiver, and Service. There are no guarantees that this access mode will remain on a file, such as when it goes through a backup and restore.

String NETWORK_STATS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NetworkStatsManager for querying network usage stats.

String NFC_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NfcManager for using NFC.

String NOTIFICATION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NotificationManager for informing the user of background events.

String NSD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NsdManager for handling management of network service discovery

String POWER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a PowerManager for controlling power management, including "wake locks," which let you keep the device on while you're running long tasks.

String PRINT_SERVICE

PrintManager for printing and managing printers and print tasks.

String RESTRICTIONS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a RestrictionsManager for retrieving application restrictions and requesting permissions for restricted operations.

String SEARCH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SearchManager for handling searches.

String SENSOR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SensorManager for accessing sensors.

String SHORTCUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ShortcutManager for accessing the launcher shortcut service.

String STORAGE_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a StorageManager for accessing system storage functions.

String SYSTEM_HEALTH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SystemHealthManager for accessing system health (battery, power, memory, etc) metrics.

String TELECOM_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TelecomManager to manage telecom-related features of the device.

String TELEPHONY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TelephonyManager for handling management the telephony features of the device.

String TELEPHONY_SUBSCRIPTION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SubscriptionManager for handling management the telephony subscriptions of the device.

String TEXT_SERVICES_MANAGER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TextServicesManager for accessing text services.

String TV_INPUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TvInputManager for interacting with TV inputs on the device.

String UI_MODE_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UiModeManager for controlling UI modes.

String USAGE_STATS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UsageStatsManager for querying device usage stats.

String USB_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UsbManager for access to USB devices (as a USB host) and for controlling this device's behavior as a USB device.

String USER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UserManager for managing users on devices that support multiple users.

String VIBRATOR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a Vibrator for interacting with the vibration hardware.

String WALLPAPER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a com.android.server.WallpaperService for accessing wallpapers.

String WIFI_P2P_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WifiP2pManager for handling management of Wi-Fi peer-to-peer connections.

String WIFI_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WifiManager for handling management of Wi-Fi access.

String WINDOW_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WindowManager for accessing the system's window manager.

Public constructors

Context()

Public methods

abstract boolean bindService(Intent service, ServiceConnection conn, int flags)

Connect to an application service, creating it if needed.

abstract int checkCallingOrSelfPermission(String permission)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC or you have been granted a particular permission.

abstract int checkCallingOrSelfUriPermission(Uri uri, int modeFlags)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC or you has been granted permission to access a specific URI.

abstract int checkCallingPermission(String permission)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC you are handling has been granted a particular permission.

abstract int checkCallingUriPermission(Uri uri, int modeFlags)

Determine whether the calling process and user ID has been granted permission to access a specific URI.

abstract int checkPermission(String permission, int pid, int uid)

Determine whether the given permission is allowed for a particular process and user ID running in the system.

abstract int checkSelfPermission(String permission)

Determine whether you have been granted a particular permission.

abstract int checkUriPermission(Uri uri, String readPermission, String writePermission, int pid, int uid, int modeFlags)

Check both a Uri and normal permission.

abstract int checkUriPermission(Uri uri, int pid, int uid, int modeFlags)

Determine whether a particular process and user ID has been granted permission to access a specific URI.

abstract void clearWallpaper()

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.clear() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

abstract Context createConfigurationContext(Configuration overrideConfiguration)

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose resources are adjusted to match the given Configuration.

abstract Context createDeviceProtectedStorageContext()

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose storage APIs are backed by device-protected storage.

abstract Context createDisplayContext(Display display)

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose resources are adjusted to match the metrics of the given Display.

abstract Context createPackageContext(String packageName, int flags)

Return a new Context object for the given application name.

abstract String[] databaseList()

Returns an array of strings naming the private databases associated with this Context's application package.

abstract boolean deleteDatabase(String name)

Delete an existing private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package.

abstract boolean deleteFile(String name)

Delete the given private file associated with this Context's application package.

abstract boolean deleteSharedPreferences(String name)

Delete an existing shared preferences file.

abstract void enforceCallingOrSelfPermission(String permission, String message)

If neither you nor the calling process of an IPC you are handling has been granted a particular permission, throw a SecurityException.

abstract void enforceCallingOrSelfUriPermission(Uri uri, int modeFlags, String message)

If the calling process of an IPC or you has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException.

abstract void enforceCallingPermission(String permission, String message)

If the calling process of an IPC you are handling has not been granted a particular permission, throw a SecurityException.

abstract void enforceCallingUriPermission(Uri uri, int modeFlags, String message)

If the calling process and user ID has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException.

abstract void enforcePermission(String permission, int pid, int uid, String message)

If the given permission is not allowed for a particular process and user ID running in the system, throw a SecurityException.

abstract void enforceUriPermission(Uri uri, String readPermission, String writePermission, int pid, int uid, int modeFlags, String message)

Enforce both a Uri and normal permission.

abstract void enforceUriPermission(Uri uri, int pid, int uid, int modeFlags, String message)

If a particular process and user ID has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException.

abstract String[] fileList()

Returns an array of strings naming the private files associated with this Context's application package.

abstract Context getApplicationContext()

Return the context of the single, global Application object of the current process.

abstract ApplicationInfo getApplicationInfo()

Return the full application info for this context's package.

abstract AssetManager getAssets()

Returns an AssetManager instance for the application's package.

abstract File getCacheDir()

Returns the absolute path to the application specific cache directory on the filesystem.

abstract ClassLoader getClassLoader()

Return a class loader you can use to retrieve classes in this package.

abstract File getCodeCacheDir()

Returns the absolute path to the application specific cache directory on the filesystem designed for storing cached code.

final int getColor(int id)

Returns a color associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

final ColorStateList getColorStateList(int id)

Returns a color state list associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

abstract ContentResolver getContentResolver()

Return a ContentResolver instance for your application's package.

abstract File getDataDir()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem where all private files belonging to this app are stored.

abstract File getDatabasePath(String name)

Returns the absolute path on the filesystem where a database created with openOrCreateDatabase(String, int, SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory) is stored.

abstract File getDir(String name, int mode)

Retrieve, creating if needed, a new directory in which the application can place its own custom data files.

final Drawable getDrawable(int id)

Returns a drawable object associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

abstract File getExternalCacheDir()

Returns absolute path to application-specific directory on the primary shared/external storage device where the application can place cache files it owns.

abstract File[] getExternalCacheDirs()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place cache files it owns.

abstract File getExternalFilesDir(String type)

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the primary shared/external storage device where the application can place persistent files it owns.

abstract File[] getExternalFilesDirs(String type)

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place persistent files it owns.

abstract File[] getExternalMediaDirs()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place media files.

abstract File getFileStreamPath(String name)

Returns the absolute path on the filesystem where a file created with openFileOutput(String, int) is stored.

abstract File getFilesDir()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem where files created with openFileOutput(String, int) are stored.

abstract Looper getMainLooper()

Return the Looper for the main thread of the current process.

abstract File getNoBackupFilesDir()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem similar to getFilesDir().

abstract File getObbDir()

Return the primary shared/external storage directory where this application's OBB files (if there are any) can be found.

abstract File[] getObbDirs()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application's OBB files (if there are any) can be found.

abstract String getPackageCodePath()

Return the full path to this context's primary Android package.

abstract PackageManager getPackageManager()

Return PackageManager instance to find global package information.

abstract String getPackageName()

Return the name of this application's package.

abstract String getPackageResourcePath()

Return the full path to this context's primary Android package.

abstract Resources getResources()

Returns a Resources instance for the application's package.

abstract SharedPreferences getSharedPreferences(String name, int mode)

Retrieve and hold the contents of the preferences file 'name', returning a SharedPreferences through which you can retrieve and modify its values.

final String getString(int resId, Object... formatArgs)

Returns a localized formatted string from the application's package's default string table, substituting the format arguments as defined in Formatter and format(String, Object...).

final String getString(int resId)

Returns a localized string from the application's package's default string table.

final <T> T getSystemService(Class<T> serviceClass)

Return the handle to a system-level service by class.

abstract Object getSystemService(String name)

Return the handle to a system-level service by name.

abstract String getSystemServiceName(Class<?> serviceClass)

Gets the name of the system-level service that is represented by the specified class.

final CharSequence getText(int resId)

Return a localized, styled CharSequence from the application's package's default string table.

abstract Resources.Theme getTheme()

Return the Theme object associated with this Context.

abstract Drawable getWallpaper()

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.get() instead.

abstract int getWallpaperDesiredMinimumHeight()

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.getDesiredMinimumHeight() instead.

abstract int getWallpaperDesiredMinimumWidth()

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.getDesiredMinimumWidth() instead.

abstract void grantUriPermission(String toPackage, Uri uri, int modeFlags)

Grant permission to access a specific Uri to another package, regardless of whether that package has general permission to access the Uri's content provider.

abstract boolean isDeviceProtectedStorage()

Indicates if the storage APIs of this Context are backed by device-protected storage.

boolean isRestricted()

Indicates whether this Context is restricted.

abstract boolean moveDatabaseFrom(Context sourceContext, String name)

Move an existing database file from the given source storage context to this context.

abstract boolean moveSharedPreferencesFrom(Context sourceContext, String name)

Move an existing shared preferences file from the given source storage context to this context.

final TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes(AttributeSet set, int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme.

final TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes(AttributeSet set, int[] attrs, int defStyleAttr, int defStyleRes)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme.

final TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes(int resid, int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme.

final TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes(int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme.

abstract FileInputStream openFileInput(String name)

Open a private file associated with this Context's application package for reading.

abstract FileOutputStream openFileOutput(String name, int mode)

Open a private file associated with this Context's application package for writing.

abstract SQLiteDatabase openOrCreateDatabase(String name, int mode, SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory factory, DatabaseErrorHandler errorHandler)

Open a new private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package.

abstract SQLiteDatabase openOrCreateDatabase(String name, int mode, SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory factory)

Open a new private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package.

abstract Drawable peekWallpaper()

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.peek() instead.

void registerComponentCallbacks(ComponentCallbacks callback)

Add a new ComponentCallbacks to the base application of the Context, which will be called at the same times as the ComponentCallbacks methods of activities and other components are called.

abstract Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter)

Register a BroadcastReceiver to be run in the main activity thread.

abstract Intent registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver, IntentFilter filter, String broadcastPermission, Handler scheduler)

Register to receive intent broadcasts, to run in the context of scheduler.

abstract void removeStickyBroadcast(Intent intent)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void removeStickyBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void revokeUriPermission(Uri uri, int modeFlags)

Remove all permissions to access a particular content provider Uri that were previously added with grantUriPermission(String, Uri, int).

abstract void sendBroadcast(Intent intent, String receiverPermission)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers, allowing an optional required permission to be enforced.

abstract void sendBroadcast(Intent intent)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers.

abstract void sendBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to.

abstract void sendBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user, String receiverPermission)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent, String) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to.

abstract void sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent intent, String receiverPermission, BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, Handler scheduler, int initialCode, String initialData, Bundle initialExtras)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to receive data back from the broadcast.

abstract void sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent intent, String receiverPermission)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers, delivering them one at a time to allow more preferred receivers to consume the broadcast before it is delivered to less preferred receivers.

abstract void sendOrderedBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user, String receiverPermission, BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, Handler scheduler, int initialCode, String initialData, Bundle initialExtras)

Version of sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String, BroadcastReceiver, Handler, int, String, Bundle) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to.

abstract void sendStickyBroadcast(Intent intent)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void sendStickyBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void sendStickyOrderedBroadcast(Intent intent, BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, Handler scheduler, int initialCode, String initialData, Bundle initialExtras)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void sendStickyOrderedBroadcastAsUser(Intent intent, UserHandle user, BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, Handler scheduler, int initialCode, String initialData, Bundle initialExtras)

This method was deprecated in API level 21. Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

abstract void setTheme(int resid)

Set the base theme for this context.

abstract void setWallpaper(Bitmap bitmap)

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.set() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

abstract void setWallpaper(InputStream data)

This method was deprecated in API level 5. Use WallpaperManager.set() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

abstract void startActivities(Intent[] intents, Bundle options)

Launch multiple new activities.

abstract void startActivities(Intent[] intents)

Same as startActivities(Intent[], Bundle) with no options specified.

abstract void startActivity(Intent intent)

Same as startActivity(Intent, Bundle) with no options specified.

abstract void startActivity(Intent intent, Bundle options)

Launch a new activity.

abstract boolean startInstrumentation(ComponentName className, String profileFile, Bundle arguments)

Start executing an Instrumentation class.

abstract void startIntentSender(IntentSender intent, Intent fillInIntent, int flagsMask, int flagsValues, int extraFlags)

Same as startIntentSender(IntentSender, Intent, int, int, int, Bundle) with no options specified.

abstract void startIntentSender(IntentSender intent, Intent fillInIntent, int flagsMask, int flagsValues, int extraFlags, Bundle options)

Like startActivity(Intent, Bundle), but taking a IntentSender to start.

abstract ComponentName startService(Intent service)

Request that a given application service be started.

abstract boolean stopService(Intent service)

Request that a given application service be stopped.

abstract void unbindService(ServiceConnection conn)

Disconnect from an application service.

void unregisterComponentCallbacks(ComponentCallbacks callback)

Remove a ComponentCallbacks object that was previously registered with registerComponentCallbacks(ComponentCallbacks).

abstract void unregisterReceiver(BroadcastReceiver receiver)

Unregister a previously registered BroadcastReceiver.

Inherited methods

From class java.lang.Object

Constants

ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE

Added in API level 4
String ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AccessibilityManager for giving the user feedback for UI events through the registered event listeners.

See also:

Constant Value: "accessibility"

ACCOUNT_SERVICE

Added in API level 5
String ACCOUNT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AccountManager for receiving intents at a time of your choosing.

See also:

Constant Value: "account"

ACTIVITY_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String ACTIVITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ActivityManager for interacting with the global system state.

See also:

Constant Value: "activity"

ALARM_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String ALARM_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AlarmManager for receiving intents at a time of your choosing.

See also:

Constant Value: "alarm"

APPWIDGET_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String APPWIDGET_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AppWidgetManager for accessing AppWidgets.

See also:

Constant Value: "appwidget"

APP_OPS_SERVICE

Added in API level 19
String APP_OPS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AppOpsManager for tracking application operations on the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "appops"

AUDIO_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String AUDIO_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a AudioManager for handling management of volume, ringer modes and audio routing.

See also:

Constant Value: "audio"

BATTERY_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String BATTERY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a BatteryManager for managing battery state.

See also:

Constant Value: "batterymanager"

BIND_ABOVE_CLIENT

Added in API level 14
int BIND_ABOVE_CLIENT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): indicates that the client application binding to this service considers the service to be more important than the app itself. When set, the platform will try to have the out of memory killer kill the app before it kills the service it is bound to, though this is not guaranteed to be the case.

Constant Value: 8 (0x00000008)

BIND_ADJUST_WITH_ACTIVITY

Added in API level 14
int BIND_ADJUST_WITH_ACTIVITY

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): If binding from an activity, allow the target service's process importance to be raised based on whether the activity is visible to the user, regardless whether another flag is used to reduce the amount that the client process's overall importance is used to impact it.

Constant Value: 128 (0x00000080)

BIND_ALLOW_OOM_MANAGEMENT

Added in API level 14
int BIND_ALLOW_OOM_MANAGEMENT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): allow the process hosting the bound service to go through its normal memory management. It will be treated more like a running service, allowing the system to (temporarily) expunge the process if low on memory or for some other whim it may have, and being more aggressive about making it a candidate to be killed (and restarted) if running for a long time.

Constant Value: 16 (0x00000010)

BIND_AUTO_CREATE

Added in API level 1
int BIND_AUTO_CREATE

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): automatically create the service as long as the binding exists. Note that while this will create the service, its onStartCommand(Intent, int, int) method will still only be called due to an explicit call to startService(Intent). Even without that, though, this still provides you with access to the service object while the service is created.

Note that prior to ICE_CREAM_SANDWICH, not supplying this flag would also impact how important the system consider's the target service's process to be. When set, the only way for it to be raised was by binding from a service in which case it will only be important when that activity is in the foreground. Now to achieve this behavior you must explicitly supply the new flag BIND_ADJUST_WITH_ACTIVITY. For compatibility, old applications that don't specify BIND_AUTO_CREATE will automatically have the flags BIND_WAIVE_PRIORITY and BIND_ADJUST_WITH_ACTIVITY set for them in order to achieve the same result.

Constant Value: 1 (0x00000001)

BIND_DEBUG_UNBIND

Added in API level 1
int BIND_DEBUG_UNBIND

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): include debugging help for mismatched calls to unbind. When this flag is set, the callstack of the following unbindService(ServiceConnection) call is retained, to be printed if a later incorrect unbind call is made. Note that doing this requires retaining information about the binding that was made for the lifetime of the app, resulting in a leak -- this should only be used for debugging.

Constant Value: 2 (0x00000002)

BIND_EXTERNAL_SERVICE

Added in API level 24
int BIND_EXTERNAL_SERVICE

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): The service being bound is an isolated, external service. This binds the service into the calling application's package, rather than the package in which the service is declared.

When using this flag, the code for the service being bound will execute under the calling application's package name and user ID. Because the service must be an isolated process, it will not have direct access to the application's data, though. The purpose of this flag is to allow applications to provide services that are attributed to the app using the service, rather than the application providing the service.

Constant Value: -2147483648 (0x80000000)

BIND_IMPORTANT

Added in API level 14
int BIND_IMPORTANT

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): this service is very important to the client, so should be brought to the foreground process level when the client is. Normally a process can only be raised to the visibility level by a client, even if that client is in the foreground.

Constant Value: 64 (0x00000040)

BIND_NOT_FOREGROUND

Added in API level 8
int BIND_NOT_FOREGROUND

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): don't allow this binding to raise the target service's process to the foreground scheduling priority. It will still be raised to at least the same memory priority as the client (so that its process will not be killable in any situation where the client is not killable), but for CPU scheduling purposes it may be left in the background. This only has an impact in the situation where the binding client is a foreground process and the target service is in a background process.

Constant Value: 4 (0x00000004)

BIND_WAIVE_PRIORITY

Added in API level 14
int BIND_WAIVE_PRIORITY

Flag for bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): don't impact the scheduling or memory management priority of the target service's hosting process. Allows the service's process to be managed on the background LRU list just like a regular application process in the background.

Constant Value: 32 (0x00000020)

BLUETOOTH_SERVICE

Added in API level 18
String BLUETOOTH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a BluetoothManager for using Bluetooth.

See also:

Constant Value: "bluetooth"

CAMERA_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String CAMERA_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CameraManager for interacting with camera devices.

See also:

Constant Value: "camera"

CAPTIONING_SERVICE

Added in API level 19
String CAPTIONING_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CaptioningManager for obtaining captioning properties and listening for changes in captioning preferences.

See also:

Constant Value: "captioning"

CARRIER_CONFIG_SERVICE

Added in API level 23
String CARRIER_CONFIG_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a CarrierConfigManager for reading carrier configuration values.

See also:

Constant Value: "carrier_config"

CLIPBOARD_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String CLIPBOARD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ClipboardManager for accessing and modifying ClipboardManager for accessing and modifying the contents of the global clipboard.

See also:

Constant Value: "clipboard"

CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ConnectivityManager for handling management of network connections.

See also:

Constant Value: "connectivity"

CONSUMER_IR_SERVICE

Added in API level 19
String CONSUMER_IR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ConsumerIrManager for transmitting infrared signals from the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "consumer_ir"

CONTEXT_IGNORE_SECURITY

Added in API level 1
int CONTEXT_IGNORE_SECURITY

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): ignore any security restrictions on the Context being requested, allowing it to always be loaded. For use with CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE to allow code to be loaded into a process even when it isn't safe to do so. Use with extreme care!

Constant Value: 2 (0x00000002)

CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE

Added in API level 1
int CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): include the application code with the context. This means loading code into the caller's process, so that getClassLoader() can be used to instantiate the application's classes. Setting this flags imposes security restrictions on what application context you can access; if the requested application can not be safely loaded into your process, java.lang.SecurityException will be thrown. If this flag is not set, there will be no restrictions on the packages that can be loaded, but getClassLoader() will always return the default system class loader.

Constant Value: 1 (0x00000001)

CONTEXT_RESTRICTED

Added in API level 4
int CONTEXT_RESTRICTED

Flag for use with createPackageContext(String, int): a restricted context may disable specific features. For instance, a View associated with a restricted context would ignore particular XML attributes.

Constant Value: 4 (0x00000004)

DEVICE_POLICY_SERVICE

Added in API level 8
String DEVICE_POLICY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DevicePolicyManager for working with global device policy management.

See also:

Constant Value: "device_policy"

DISPLAY_SERVICE

Added in API level 17
String DISPLAY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DisplayManager for interacting with display devices.

See also:

Constant Value: "display"

DOWNLOAD_SERVICE

Added in API level 9
String DOWNLOAD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DownloadManager for requesting HTTP downloads.

See also:

Constant Value: "download"

DROPBOX_SERVICE

Added in API level 8
String DROPBOX_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a DropBoxManager instance for recording diagnostic logs.

See also:

Constant Value: "dropbox"

FINGERPRINT_SERVICE

Added in API level 23
String FINGERPRINT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a FingerprintManager for handling management of fingerprints.

See also:

Constant Value: "fingerprint"

HARDWARE_PROPERTIES_SERVICE

Added in API level 24
String HARDWARE_PROPERTIES_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a HardwarePropertiesManager for accessing the hardware properties service.

See also:

Constant Value: "hardware_properties"

INPUT_METHOD_SERVICE

Added in API level 3
String INPUT_METHOD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a InputMethodManager for accessing input methods.

See also:

Constant Value: "input_method"

INPUT_SERVICE

Added in API level 16
String INPUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a InputManager for interacting with input devices.

See also:

Constant Value: "input"

JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a JobScheduler instance for managing occasional background tasks.

See also:

Constant Value: "jobscheduler"

KEYGUARD_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String KEYGUARD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NotificationManager for controlling keyguard.

See also:

Constant Value: "keyguard"

LAUNCHER_APPS_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String LAUNCHER_APPS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LauncherApps for querying and monitoring launchable apps across profiles of a user.

See also:

Constant Value: "launcherapps"

LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LayoutInflater for inflating layout resources in this context.

See also:

Constant Value: "layout_inflater"

LOCATION_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String LOCATION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a LocationManager for controlling location updates.

See also:

Constant Value: "location"

MEDIA_PROJECTION_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String MEDIA_PROJECTION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaProjectionManager instance for managing media projection sessions.

See also:

Constant Value: "media_projection"

MEDIA_ROUTER_SERVICE

Added in API level 16
String MEDIA_ROUTER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaRouter for controlling and managing routing of media.

See also:

Constant Value: "media_router"

MEDIA_SESSION_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String MEDIA_SESSION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MediaSessionManager for managing media Sessions.

See also:

Constant Value: "media_session"

MIDI_SERVICE

Added in API level 23
String MIDI_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a MidiManager for accessing the MIDI service.

See also:

Constant Value: "midi"

MODE_APPEND

Added in API level 1
int MODE_APPEND

File creation mode: for use with openFileOutput(String, int), if the file already exists then write data to the end of the existing file instead of erasing it.

See also:

Constant Value: 32768 (0x00008000)

MODE_ENABLE_WRITE_AHEAD_LOGGING

Added in API level 16
int MODE_ENABLE_WRITE_AHEAD_LOGGING

Database open flag: when set, the database is opened with write-ahead logging enabled by default.

See also:

Constant Value: 8 (0x00000008)

MODE_MULTI_PROCESS

Added in API level 11
int MODE_MULTI_PROCESS

This constant was deprecated in API level 23.
MODE_MULTI_PROCESS does not work reliably in some versions of Android, and furthermore does not provide any mechanism for reconciling concurrent modifications across processes. Applications should not attempt to use it. Instead, they should use an explicit cross-process data management approach such as ContentProvider.

SharedPreference loading flag: when set, the file on disk will be checked for modification even if the shared preferences instance is already loaded in this process. This behavior is sometimes desired in cases where the application has multiple processes, all writing to the same SharedPreferences file. Generally there are better forms of communication between processes, though.

This was the legacy (but undocumented) behavior in and before Gingerbread (Android 2.3) and this flag is implied when targetting such releases. For applications targetting SDK versions greater than Android 2.3, this flag must be explicitly set if desired.

See also:

Constant Value: 4 (0x00000004)

MODE_NO_LOCALIZED_COLLATORS

Added in API level 24
int MODE_NO_LOCALIZED_COLLATORS

Database open flag: when set, the database is opened without support for localized collators.

See also:

Constant Value: 16 (0x00000010)

MODE_PRIVATE

Added in API level 1
int MODE_PRIVATE

File creation mode: the default mode, where the created file can only be accessed by the calling application (or all applications sharing the same user ID).

Constant Value: 0 (0x00000000)

MODE_WORLD_READABLE

Added in API level 1
int MODE_WORLD_READABLE

This constant was deprecated in API level 17.
Creating world-readable files is very dangerous, and likely to cause security holes in applications. It is strongly discouraged; instead, applications should use more formal mechanism for interactions such as ContentProvider, BroadcastReceiver, and Service. There are no guarantees that this access mode will remain on a file, such as when it goes through a backup and restore.

File creation mode: allow all other applications to have read access to the created file.

As of N attempting to use this mode will throw a SecurityException.

See also:

Constant Value: 1 (0x00000001)

MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE

Added in API level 1
int MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE

This constant was deprecated in API level 17.
Creating world-writable files is very dangerous, and likely to cause security holes in applications. It is strongly discouraged; instead, applications should use more formal mechanism for interactions such as ContentProvider, BroadcastReceiver, and Service. There are no guarantees that this access mode will remain on a file, such as when it goes through a backup and restore.

File creation mode: allow all other applications to have write access to the created file.

As of N attempting to use this mode will throw a SecurityException.

See also:

Constant Value: 2 (0x00000002)

NETWORK_STATS_SERVICE

Added in API level 23
String NETWORK_STATS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NetworkStatsManager for querying network usage stats.

See also:

Constant Value: "netstats"

NFC_SERVICE

Added in API level 10
String NFC_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NfcManager for using NFC.

See also:

Constant Value: "nfc"

NOTIFICATION_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String NOTIFICATION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NotificationManager for informing the user of background events.

See also:

Constant Value: "notification"

NSD_SERVICE

Added in API level 16
String NSD_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a NsdManager for handling management of network service discovery

See also:

Constant Value: "servicediscovery"

POWER_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String POWER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a PowerManager for controlling power management, including "wake locks," which let you keep the device on while you're running long tasks.

Constant Value: "power"

PRINT_SERVICE

Added in API level 19
String PRINT_SERVICE

PrintManager for printing and managing printers and print tasks.

See also:

Constant Value: "print"

RESTRICTIONS_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String RESTRICTIONS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a RestrictionsManager for retrieving application restrictions and requesting permissions for restricted operations.

See also:

Constant Value: "restrictions"

SEARCH_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String SEARCH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SearchManager for handling searches.

See also:

Constant Value: "search"

SENSOR_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String SENSOR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SensorManager for accessing sensors.

See also:

Constant Value: "sensor"

SHORTCUT_SERVICE

Added in API level 25
String SHORTCUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a ShortcutManager for accessing the launcher shortcut service.

See also:

Constant Value: "shortcut"

STORAGE_SERVICE

Added in API level 9
String STORAGE_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a StorageManager for accessing system storage functions.

See also:

Constant Value: "storage"

SYSTEM_HEALTH_SERVICE

Added in API level 24
String SYSTEM_HEALTH_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SystemHealthManager for accessing system health (battery, power, memory, etc) metrics.

See also:

Constant Value: "systemhealth"

TELECOM_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String TELECOM_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TelecomManager to manage telecom-related features of the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "telecom"

TELEPHONY_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String TELEPHONY_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TelephonyManager for handling management the telephony features of the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "phone"

TELEPHONY_SUBSCRIPTION_SERVICE

Added in API level 22
String TELEPHONY_SUBSCRIPTION_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a SubscriptionManager for handling management the telephony subscriptions of the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "telephony_subscription_service"

TEXT_SERVICES_MANAGER_SERVICE

Added in API level 14
String TEXT_SERVICES_MANAGER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TextServicesManager for accessing text services.

See also:

Constant Value: "textservices"

TV_INPUT_SERVICE

Added in API level 21
String TV_INPUT_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a TvInputManager for interacting with TV inputs on the device.

See also:

Constant Value: "tv_input"

UI_MODE_SERVICE

Added in API level 8
String UI_MODE_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UiModeManager for controlling UI modes.

See also:

Constant Value: "uimode"

USAGE_STATS_SERVICE

Added in API level 22
String USAGE_STATS_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UsageStatsManager for querying device usage stats.

See also:

Constant Value: "usagestats"

USB_SERVICE

Added in API level 12
String USB_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UsbManager for access to USB devices (as a USB host) and for controlling this device's behavior as a USB device.

See also:

Constant Value: "usb"

USER_SERVICE

Added in API level 17
String USER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a UserManager for managing users on devices that support multiple users.

See also:

Constant Value: "user"

VIBRATOR_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String VIBRATOR_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a Vibrator for interacting with the vibration hardware.

See also:

Constant Value: "vibrator"

WALLPAPER_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String WALLPAPER_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a com.android.server.WallpaperService for accessing wallpapers.

See also:

Constant Value: "wallpaper"

WIFI_P2P_SERVICE

Added in API level 14
String WIFI_P2P_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WifiP2pManager for handling management of Wi-Fi peer-to-peer connections.

See also:

Constant Value: "wifip2p"

WIFI_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String WIFI_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WifiManager for handling management of Wi-Fi access.

See also:

Constant Value: "wifi"

WINDOW_SERVICE

Added in API level 1
String WINDOW_SERVICE

Use with getSystemService(Class) to retrieve a WindowManager for accessing the system's window manager.

See also:

Constant Value: "window"

Public constructors

Context

Added in API level 1
Context ()

Public methods

bindService

Added in API level 1
boolean bindService (Intent service, 
                ServiceConnection conn, 
                int flags)

Connect to an application service, creating it if needed. This defines a dependency between your application and the service. The given conn will receive the service object when it is created and be told if it dies and restarts. The service will be considered required by the system only for as long as the calling context exists. For example, if this Context is an Activity that is stopped, the service will not be required to continue running until the Activity is resumed.

This function will throw SecurityException if you do not have permission to bind to the given service.

Note: this method can not be called from a BroadcastReceiver component. A pattern you can use to communicate from a BroadcastReceiver to a Service is to call startService(Intent) with the arguments containing the command to be sent, with the service calling its stopSelf(int) method when done executing that command. See the API demo App/Service/Service Start Arguments Controller for an illustration of this. It is okay, however, to use this method from a BroadcastReceiver that has been registered with registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter), since the lifetime of this BroadcastReceiver is tied to another object (the one that registered it).

Parameters
service Intent: Identifies the service to connect to. The Intent may specify either an explicit component name, or a logical description (action, category, etc) to match an IntentFilter published by a service.
conn ServiceConnection: Receives information as the service is started and stopped. This must be a valid ServiceConnection object; it must not be null.
flags int: Operation options for the binding. May be 0, BIND_AUTO_CREATE, BIND_DEBUG_UNBIND, BIND_NOT_FOREGROUND, BIND_ABOVE_CLIENT, BIND_ALLOW_OOM_MANAGEMENT, or BIND_WAIVE_PRIORITY.
Returns
boolean If you have successfully bound to the service, true is returned; false is returned if the connection is not made so you will not receive the service object.
Throws
SecurityException  

See also:

checkCallingOrSelfPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkCallingOrSelfPermission (String permission)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC or you have been granted a particular permission. This is the same as checkCallingPermission(String), except it grants your own permissions if you are not currently processing an IPC. Use with care!

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the calling pid/uid is allowed that permission, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

checkCallingOrSelfUriPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkCallingOrSelfUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC or you has been granted permission to access a specific URI. This is the same as checkCallingUriPermission(Uri, int), except it grants your own permissions if you are not currently processing an IPC. Use with care!

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the caller is allowed to access that uri, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

checkCallingPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkCallingPermission (String permission)

Determine whether the calling process of an IPC you are handling has been granted a particular permission. This is basically the same as calling checkPermission(String, int, int) with the pid and uid returned by getCallingPid() and getCallingUid(). One important difference is that if you are not currently processing an IPC, this function will always fail. This is done to protect against accidentally leaking permissions; you can use checkCallingOrSelfPermission(String) to avoid this protection.

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the calling pid/uid is allowed that permission, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

checkCallingUriPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkCallingUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags)

Determine whether the calling process and user ID has been granted permission to access a specific URI. This is basically the same as calling checkUriPermission(Uri, int, int, int) with the pid and uid returned by getCallingPid() and getCallingUid(). One important difference is that if you are not currently processing an IPC, this function will always fail.

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the caller is allowed to access that uri, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

checkPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkPermission (String permission, 
                int pid, 
                int uid)

Determine whether the given permission is allowed for a particular process and user ID running in the system.

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the given pid/uid is allowed that permission, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

checkSelfPermission

Added in API level 23
int checkSelfPermission (String permission)

Determine whether you have been granted a particular permission.

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if you have the permission, or PERMISSION_DENIED if not.

See also:

checkUriPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                String readPermission, 
                String writePermission, 
                int pid, 
                int uid, 
                int modeFlags)

Check both a Uri and normal permission. This allows you to perform both checkPermission(String, int, int) and checkUriPermission(Uri, int, int, int) in one call.

Parameters
uri Uri: The Uri whose permission is to be checked, or null to not do this check.
readPermission String: The permission that provides overall read access, or null to not do this check.
writePermission String: The permission that provides overall write access, or null to not do this check.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the caller is allowed to access that uri or holds one of the given permissions, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

checkUriPermission

Added in API level 1
int checkUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int pid, 
                int uid, 
                int modeFlags)

Determine whether a particular process and user ID has been granted permission to access a specific URI. This only checks for permissions that have been explicitly granted -- if the given process/uid has more general access to the URI's content provider then this check will always fail.

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
Returns
int PERMISSION_GRANTED if the given pid/uid is allowed to access that uri, or PERMISSION_DENIED if it is not.

See also:

clearWallpaper

Added in API level 1
void clearWallpaper ()

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.clear() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

Throws
IOException

createConfigurationContext

Added in API level 17
Context createConfigurationContext (Configuration overrideConfiguration)

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose resources are adjusted to match the given Configuration. Each call to this method returns a new instance of a Context object; Context objects are not shared, however common state (ClassLoader, other Resources for the same configuration) may be so the Context itself can be fairly lightweight.

Parameters
overrideConfiguration Configuration: A Configuration specifying what values to modify in the base Configuration of the original Context's resources. If the base configuration changes (such as due to an orientation change), the resources of this context will also change except for those that have been explicitly overridden with a value here.
Returns
Context A Context with the given configuration override.

createDeviceProtectedStorageContext

Added in API level 24
Context createDeviceProtectedStorageContext ()

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose storage APIs are backed by device-protected storage.

On devices with direct boot, data stored in this location is encrypted with a key tied to the physical device, and it can be accessed immediately after the device has booted successfully, both before and after the user has authenticated with their credentials (such as a lock pattern or PIN).

Because device-protected data is available without user authentication, you should carefully limit the data you store using this Context. For example, storing sensitive authentication tokens or passwords in the device-protected area is strongly discouraged.

If the underlying device does not have the ability to store device-protected and credential-protected data using different keys, then both storage areas will become available at the same time. They remain as two distinct storage locations on disk, and only the window of availability changes.

Each call to this method returns a new instance of a Context object; Context objects are not shared, however common state (ClassLoader, other Resources for the same configuration) may be so the Context itself can be fairly lightweight.

Returns
Context

See also:

createDisplayContext

Added in API level 17
Context createDisplayContext (Display display)

Return a new Context object for the current Context but whose resources are adjusted to match the metrics of the given Display. Each call to this method returns a new instance of a Context object; Context objects are not shared, however common state (ClassLoader, other Resources for the same configuration) may be so the Context itself can be fairly lightweight. The returned display Context provides a WindowManager (see getSystemService(String)) that is configured to show windows on the given display. The WindowManager's getDefaultDisplay() method can be used to retrieve the Display from the returned Context.

Parameters
display Display: A Display object specifying the display for whose metrics the Context's resources should be tailored and upon which new windows should be shown.
Returns
Context A Context for the display.

createPackageContext

Added in API level 1
Context createPackageContext (String packageName, 
                int flags)

Return a new Context object for the given application name. This Context is the same as what the named application gets when it is launched, containing the same resources and class loader. Each call to this method returns a new instance of a Context object; Context objects are not shared, however they share common state (Resources, ClassLoader, etc) so the Context instance itself is fairly lightweight.

Throws PackageManager.NameNotFoundException if there is no application with the given package name.

Throws SecurityException if the Context requested can not be loaded into the caller's process for security reasons (see CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE for more information}.

Parameters
packageName String: Name of the application's package.
flags int: Option flags, one of CONTEXT_INCLUDE_CODE or CONTEXT_IGNORE_SECURITY.
Returns
Context A Context for the application.
Throws
SecurityException  
if there is no application with the given package name.
PackageManager.NameNotFoundException

databaseList

Added in API level 1
String[] databaseList ()

Returns an array of strings naming the private databases associated with this Context's application package.

Returns
String[] Array of strings naming the private databases.

See also:

deleteDatabase

Added in API level 1
boolean deleteDatabase (String name)

Delete an existing private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package.

Parameters
name String: The name (unique in the application package) of the database.
Returns
boolean true if the database was successfully deleted; else false.

See also:

deleteFile

Added in API level 1
boolean deleteFile (String name)

Delete the given private file associated with this Context's application package.

Parameters
name String: The name of the file to delete; can not contain path separators.
Returns
boolean true if the file was successfully deleted; else false.

See also:

deleteSharedPreferences

Added in API level 24
boolean deleteSharedPreferences (String name)

Delete an existing shared preferences file.

Parameters
name String: The name (unique in the application package) of the shared preferences file.
Returns
boolean true if the shared preferences file was successfully deleted; else false.

See also:

enforceCallingOrSelfPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceCallingOrSelfPermission (String permission, 
                String message)

If neither you nor the calling process of an IPC you are handling has been granted a particular permission, throw a SecurityException. This is the same as enforceCallingPermission(String, String), except it grants your own permissions if you are not currently processing an IPC. Use with care!

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforceCallingOrSelfUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceCallingOrSelfUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags, 
                String message)

If the calling process of an IPC or you has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException. This is the same as enforceCallingUriPermission(Uri, int, String), except it grants your own permissions if you are not currently processing an IPC. Use with care!

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforceCallingPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceCallingPermission (String permission, 
                String message)

If the calling process of an IPC you are handling has not been granted a particular permission, throw a SecurityException. This is basically the same as calling enforcePermission(String, int, int, String) with the pid and uid returned by getCallingPid() and getCallingUid(). One important difference is that if you are not currently processing an IPC, this function will always throw the SecurityException. This is done to protect against accidentally leaking permissions; you can use enforceCallingOrSelfPermission(String, String) to avoid this protection.

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforceCallingUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceCallingUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags, 
                String message)

If the calling process and user ID has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException. This is basically the same as calling enforceUriPermission(Uri, int, int, int, String) with the pid and uid returned by getCallingPid() and getCallingUid(). One important difference is that if you are not currently processing an IPC, this function will always throw a SecurityException.

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforcePermission

Added in API level 1
void enforcePermission (String permission, 
                int pid, 
                int uid, 
                String message)

If the given permission is not allowed for a particular process and user ID running in the system, throw a SecurityException.

Parameters
permission String: The name of the permission being checked.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforceUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                String readPermission, 
                String writePermission, 
                int pid, 
                int uid, 
                int modeFlags, 
                String message)

Enforce both a Uri and normal permission. This allows you to perform both enforcePermission(String, int, int, String) and enforceUriPermission(Uri, int, int, int, String) in one call.

Parameters
uri Uri: The Uri whose permission is to be checked, or null to not do this check.
readPermission String: The permission that provides overall read access, or null to not do this check.
writePermission String: The permission that provides overall write access, or null to not do this check.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

enforceUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void enforceUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int pid, 
                int uid, 
                int modeFlags, 
                String message)

If a particular process and user ID has not been granted permission to access a specific URI, throw SecurityException. This only checks for permissions that have been explicitly granted -- if the given process/uid has more general access to the URI's content provider then this check will always fail.

Parameters
uri Uri: The uri that is being checked.
pid int: The process ID being checked against. Must be > 0.
uid int: The user ID being checked against. A uid of 0 is the root user, which will pass every permission check.
modeFlags int: The type of access to grant. May be one or both of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.
message String: A message to include in the exception if it is thrown.

See also:

fileList

Added in API level 1
String[] fileList ()

Returns an array of strings naming the private files associated with this Context's application package.

Returns
String[] Array of strings naming the private files.

See also:

getApplicationContext

Added in API level 1
Context getApplicationContext ()

Return the context of the single, global Application object of the current process. This generally should only be used if you need a Context whose lifecycle is separate from the current context, that is tied to the lifetime of the process rather than the current component.

Consider for example how this interacts with registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter):

  • If used from an Activity context, the receiver is being registered within that activity. This means that you are expected to unregister before the activity is done being destroyed; in fact if you do not do so, the framework will clean up your leaked registration as it removes the activity and log an error. Thus, if you use the Activity context to register a receiver that is static (global to the process, not associated with an Activity instance) then that registration will be removed on you at whatever point the activity you used is destroyed.

  • If used from the Context returned here, the receiver is being registered with the global state associated with your application. Thus it will never be unregistered for you. This is necessary if the receiver is associated with static data, not a particular component. However using the ApplicationContext elsewhere can easily lead to serious leaks if you forget to unregister, unbind, etc.

Returns
Context

getApplicationInfo

Added in API level 4
ApplicationInfo getApplicationInfo ()

Return the full application info for this context's package.

Returns
ApplicationInfo

getAssets

Added in API level 1
AssetManager getAssets ()

Returns an AssetManager instance for the application's package.

Note: Implementations of this method should return an AssetManager instance that is consistent with the Resources instance returned by getResources(). For example, they should share the same Configuration object.

Returns
AssetManager an AssetManager instance for the application's package

See also:

getCacheDir

Added in API level 1
File getCacheDir ()

Returns the absolute path to the application specific cache directory on the filesystem. These files will be ones that get deleted first when the device runs low on storage. There is no guarantee when these files will be deleted.

Note: you should not rely on the system deleting these files for you; you should always have a reasonable maximum, such as 1 MB, for the amount of space you consume with cache files, and prune those files when exceeding that space. If your app requires a larger cache (larger than 1 MB), you should use getExternalCacheDir() instead.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Apps require no extra permissions to read or write to the returned path, since this path lives in their private storage.

Returns
File The path of the directory holding application cache files.

See also:

getClassLoader

Added in API level 1
ClassLoader getClassLoader ()

Return a class loader you can use to retrieve classes in this package.

Returns
ClassLoader

getCodeCacheDir

Added in API level 21
File getCodeCacheDir ()

Returns the absolute path to the application specific cache directory on the filesystem designed for storing cached code. The system will delete any files stored in this location both when your specific application is upgraded, and when the entire platform is upgraded.

This location is optimal for storing compiled or optimized code generated by your application at runtime.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Apps require no extra permissions to read or write to the returned path, since this path lives in their private storage.

Returns
File The path of the directory holding application code cache files.

getColor

Added in API level 23
int getColor (int id)

Returns a color associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

Parameters
id int: The desired resource identifier, as generated by the aapt tool. This integer encodes the package, type, and resource entry. The value 0 is an invalid identifier.
Returns
int A single color value in the form 0xAARRGGBB.
Throws
Resources.NotFoundException if the given ID does not exist.

getColorStateList

Added in API level 23
ColorStateList getColorStateList (int id)

Returns a color state list associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

Parameters
id int: The desired resource identifier, as generated by the aapt tool. This integer encodes the package, type, and resource entry. The value 0 is an invalid identifier.
Returns
ColorStateList A color state list, or null if the resource could not be resolved.
Throws
Resources.NotFoundException if the given ID does not exist.

getContentResolver

Added in API level 1
ContentResolver getContentResolver ()

Return a ContentResolver instance for your application's package.

Returns
ContentResolver

getDataDir

Added in API level 24
File getDataDir ()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem where all private files belonging to this app are stored. Apps should not use this path directly; they should instead use getFilesDir(), getCacheDir(), getDir(String, int), or other storage APIs on this class.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path.

Returns
File

See also:

getDatabasePath

Added in API level 1
File getDatabasePath (String name)

Returns the absolute path on the filesystem where a database created with openOrCreateDatabase(String, int, SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory) is stored.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Parameters
name String: The name of the database for which you would like to get its path.
Returns
File An absolute path to the given database.

See also:

getDir

Added in API level 1
File getDir (String name, 
                int mode)

Retrieve, creating if needed, a new directory in which the application can place its own custom data files. You can use the returned File object to create and access files in this directory. Note that files created through a File object will only be accessible by your own application; you can only set the mode of the entire directory, not of individual files.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Apps require no extra permissions to read or write to the returned path, since this path lives in their private storage.

Parameters
name String: Name of the directory to retrieve. This is a directory that is created as part of your application data.
mode int: Operating mode. Use 0 or MODE_PRIVATE for the default operation.
Returns
File A File object for the requested directory. The directory will have been created if it does not already exist.

See also:

getDrawable

Added in API level 21
Drawable getDrawable (int id)

Returns a drawable object associated with a particular resource ID and styled for the current theme.

Parameters
id int: The desired resource identifier, as generated by the aapt tool. This integer encodes the package, type, and resource entry. The value 0 is an invalid identifier.
Returns
Drawable An object that can be used to draw this resource, or null if the resource could not be resolved.
Throws
Resources.NotFoundException if the given ID does not exist.

getExternalCacheDir

Added in API level 8
File getExternalCacheDir ()

Returns absolute path to application-specific directory on the primary shared/external storage device where the application can place cache files it owns. These files are internal to the application, and not typically visible to the user as media.

This is like getCacheDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • The platform does not always monitor the space available in shared storage, and thus may not automatically delete these files. Apps should always manage the maximum space used in this location. Currently the only time files here will be deleted by the platform is when running on JELLY_BEAN_MR1 or later and isExternalStorageEmulated(File) returns true.
  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

If a shared storage device is emulated (as determined by isExternalStorageEmulated(File)), its contents are backed by a private user data partition, which means there is little benefit to storing data here instead of the private directory returned by getCacheDir().

Starting in KITKAT, no permissions are required to read or write to the returned path; it's always accessible to the calling app. This only applies to paths generated for package name of the calling application. To access paths belonging to other packages, WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE and/or READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE are required.

On devices with multiple users (as described by UserManager), each user has their own isolated shared storage. Applications only have access to the shared storage for the user they're running as.

The returned path may change over time if different shared storage media is inserted, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Returns
File the absolute path to application-specific directory. May return null if shared storage is not currently available.

See also:

getExternalCacheDirs

Added in API level 19
File[] getExternalCacheDirs ()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place cache files it owns. These files are internal to the application, and not typically visible to the user as media.

This is like getCacheDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • The platform does not always monitor the space available in shared storage, and thus may not automatically delete these files. Apps should always manage the maximum space used in this location. Currently the only time files here will be deleted by the platform is when running on JELLY_BEAN_MR1 or later and isExternalStorageEmulated(File) returns true.
  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

If a shared storage device is emulated (as determined by isExternalStorageEmulated(File)), it's contents are backed by a private user data partition, which means there is little benefit to storing data here instead of the private directory returned by getCacheDir().

Shared storage devices returned here are considered a stable part of the device, including physical media slots under a protective cover. The returned paths do not include transient devices, such as USB flash drives connected to handheld devices.

An application may store data on any or all of the returned devices. For example, an app may choose to store large files on the device with the most available space, as measured by StatFs.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path. Write access outside of these paths on secondary external storage devices is not available.

The returned paths may change over time if different shared storage media is inserted, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Returns
File[] the absolute paths to application-specific directories. Some individual paths may be null if that shared storage is not currently available. The first path returned is the same as getExternalCacheDir().

See also:

getExternalFilesDir

Added in API level 8
File getExternalFilesDir (String type)

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the primary shared/external storage device where the application can place persistent files it owns. These files are internal to the applications, and not typically visible to the user as media.

This is like getFilesDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

If a shared storage device is emulated (as determined by isExternalStorageEmulated(File)), it's contents are backed by a private user data partition, which means there is little benefit to storing data here instead of the private directories returned by getFilesDir(), etc.

Starting in KITKAT, no permissions are required to read or write to the returned path; it's always accessible to the calling app. This only applies to paths generated for package name of the calling application. To access paths belonging to other packages, WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE and/or READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE are required.

On devices with multiple users (as described by UserManager), each user has their own isolated shared storage. Applications only have access to the shared storage for the user they're running as.

The returned path may change over time if different shared storage media is inserted, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Here is an example of typical code to manipulate a file in an application's shared storage:

void createExternalStoragePrivateFile() {
    // Create a path where we will place our private file on external
    // storage.
    File file = new File(getExternalFilesDir(null), "DemoFile.jpg");

    try {
        // Very simple code to copy a picture from the application's
        // resource into the external file.  Note that this code does
        // no error checking, and assumes the picture is small (does not
        // try to copy it in chunks).  Note that if external storage is
        // not currently mounted this will silently fail.
        InputStream is = getResources().openRawResource(R.drawable.balloons);
        OutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(file);
        byte[] data = new byte[is.available()];
        is.read(data);
        os.write(data);
        is.close();
        os.close();
    } catch (IOException e) {
        // Unable to create file, likely because external storage is
        // not currently mounted.
        Log.w("ExternalStorage", "Error writing " + file, e);
    }
}

void deleteExternalStoragePrivateFile() {
    // Get path for the file on external storage.  If external
    // storage is not currently mounted this will fail.
    File file = new File(getExternalFilesDir(null), "DemoFile.jpg");
    if (file != null) {
        file.delete();
    }
}

boolean hasExternalStoragePrivateFile() {
    // Get path for the file on external storage.  If external
    // storage is not currently mounted this will fail.
    File file = new File(getExternalFilesDir(null), "DemoFile.jpg");
    if (file != null) {
        return file.exists();
    }
    return false;
}

If you supply a non-null type to this function, the returned file will be a path to a sub-directory of the given type. Though these files are not automatically scanned by the media scanner, you can explicitly add them to the media database with MediaScannerConnection.scanFile. Note that this is not the same as Environment.getExternalStoragePublicDirectory(), which provides directories of media shared by all applications. The directories returned here are owned by the application, and their contents will be removed when the application is uninstalled. Unlike Environment.getExternalStoragePublicDirectory(), the directory returned here will be automatically created for you.

Here is an example of typical code to manipulate a picture in an application's shared storage and add it to the media database:

void createExternalStoragePrivatePicture() {
    // Create a path where we will place our picture in our own private
    // pictures directory.  Note that we don't really need to place a
    // picture in DIRECTORY_PICTURES, since the media scanner will see
    // all media in these directories; this may be useful with other
    // media types such as DIRECTORY_MUSIC however to help it classify
    // your media for display to the user.
    File path = getExternalFilesDir(Environment.DIRECTORY_PICTURES);
    File file = new File(path, "DemoPicture.jpg");

    try {
        // Very simple code to copy a picture from the application's
        // resource into the external file.  Note that this code does
        // no error checking, and assumes the picture is small (does not
        // try to copy it in chunks).  Note that if external storage is
        // not currently mounted this will silently fail.
        InputStream is = getResources().openRawResource(R.drawable.balloons);
        OutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(file);
        byte[] data = new byte[is.available()];
        is.read(data);
        os.write(data);
        is.close();
        os.close();

        // Tell the media scanner about the new file so that it is
        // immediately available to the user.
        MediaScannerConnection.scanFile(this,
                new String[] { file.toString() }, null,
                new MediaScannerConnection.OnScanCompletedListener() {
            public void onScanCompleted(String path, Uri uri) {
                Log.i("ExternalStorage", "Scanned " + path + ":");
                Log.i("ExternalStorage", "-> uri=" + uri);
            }
        });
    } catch (IOException e) {
        // Unable to create file, likely because external storage is
        // not currently mounted.
        Log.w("ExternalStorage", "Error writing " + file, e);
    }
}

void deleteExternalStoragePrivatePicture() {
    // Create a path where we will place our picture in the user's
    // public pictures directory and delete the file.  If external
    // storage is not currently mounted this will fail.
    File path = getExternalFilesDir(Environment.DIRECTORY_PICTURES);
    if (path != null) {
        File file = new File(path, "DemoPicture.jpg");
        file.delete();
    }
}

boolean hasExternalStoragePrivatePicture() {
    // Create a path where we will place our picture in the user's
    // public pictures directory and check if the file exists.  If
    // external storage is not currently mounted this will think the
    // picture doesn't exist.
    File path = getExternalFilesDir(Environment.DIRECTORY_PICTURES);
    if (path != null) {
        File file = new File(path, "DemoPicture.jpg");
        return file.exists();
    }
    return false;
}

Parameters
type String: The type of files directory to return. May be null for the root of the files directory or one of the following constants for a subdirectory: DIRECTORY_MUSIC, DIRECTORY_PODCASTS, DIRECTORY_RINGTONES, DIRECTORY_ALARMS, DIRECTORY_NOTIFICATIONS, DIRECTORY_PICTURES, or DIRECTORY_MOVIES.
Returns
File the absolute path to application-specific directory. May return null if shared storage is not currently available.

See also:

getExternalFilesDirs

Added in API level 19
File[] getExternalFilesDirs (String type)

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place persistent files it owns. These files are internal to the application, and not typically visible to the user as media.

This is like getFilesDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

If a shared storage device is emulated (as determined by isExternalStorageEmulated(File)), it's contents are backed by a private user data partition, which means there is little benefit to storing data here instead of the private directories returned by getFilesDir(), etc.

Shared storage devices returned here are considered a stable part of the device, including physical media slots under a protective cover. The returned paths do not include transient devices, such as USB flash drives connected to handheld devices.

An application may store data on any or all of the returned devices. For example, an app may choose to store large files on the device with the most available space, as measured by StatFs.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path. Write access outside of these paths on secondary external storage devices is not available.

The returned path may change over time if different shared storage media is inserted, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Parameters
type String: The type of files directory to return. May be null for the root of the files directory or one of the following constants for a subdirectory: DIRECTORY_MUSIC, DIRECTORY_PODCASTS, DIRECTORY_RINGTONES, DIRECTORY_ALARMS, DIRECTORY_NOTIFICATIONS, DIRECTORY_PICTURES, or DIRECTORY_MOVIES.
Returns
File[] the absolute paths to application-specific directories. Some individual paths may be null if that shared storage is not currently available. The first path returned is the same as getExternalFilesDir(String).

See also:

getExternalMediaDirs

Added in API level 21
File[] getExternalMediaDirs ()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application can place media files. These files are scanned and made available to other apps through MediaStore.

This is like getExternalFilesDirs(String) in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

Shared storage devices returned here are considered a stable part of the device, including physical media slots under a protective cover. The returned paths do not include transient devices, such as USB flash drives connected to handheld devices.

An application may store data on any or all of the returned devices. For example, an app may choose to store large files on the device with the most available space, as measured by StatFs.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path. Write access outside of these paths on secondary external storage devices is not available.

The returned paths may change over time if different shared storage media is inserted, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Returns
File[] the absolute paths to application-specific directories. Some individual paths may be null if that shared storage is not currently available.

See also:

getFileStreamPath

Added in API level 1
File getFileStreamPath (String name)

Returns the absolute path on the filesystem where a file created with openFileOutput(String, int) is stored.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

Parameters
name String: The name of the file for which you would like to get its path.
Returns
File An absolute path to the given file.

See also:

getFilesDir

Added in API level 1
File getFilesDir ()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem where files created with openFileOutput(String, int) are stored.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path.

Returns
File The path of the directory holding application files.

See also:

getMainLooper

Added in API level 1
Looper getMainLooper ()

Return the Looper for the main thread of the current process. This is the thread used to dispatch calls to application components (activities, services, etc).

By definition, this method returns the same result as would be obtained by calling Looper.getMainLooper().

Returns
Looper The main looper.

getNoBackupFilesDir

Added in API level 21
File getNoBackupFilesDir ()

Returns the absolute path to the directory on the filesystem similar to getFilesDir(). The difference is that files placed under this directory will be excluded from automatic backup to remote storage. See BackupAgent for a full discussion of the automatic backup mechanism in Android.

The returned path may change over time if the calling app is moved to an adopted storage device, so only relative paths should be persisted.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path.

Returns
File The path of the directory holding application files that will not be automatically backed up to remote storage.

See also:

getObbDir

Added in API level 11
File getObbDir ()

Return the primary shared/external storage directory where this application's OBB files (if there are any) can be found. Note if the application does not have any OBB files, this directory may not exist.

This is like getFilesDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

Starting in KITKAT, no permissions are required to read or write to the returned path; it's always accessible to the calling app. This only applies to paths generated for package name of the calling application. To access paths belonging to other packages, WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE and/or READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE are required.

On devices with multiple users (as described by UserManager), multiple users may share the same OBB storage location. Applications should ensure that multiple instances running under different users don't interfere with each other.

Returns
File the absolute path to application-specific directory. May return null if shared storage is not currently available.

See also:

getObbDirs

Added in API level 19
File[] getObbDirs ()

Returns absolute paths to application-specific directories on all shared/external storage devices where the application's OBB files (if there are any) can be found. Note if the application does not have any OBB files, these directories may not exist.

This is like getFilesDir() in that these files will be deleted when the application is uninstalled, however there are some important differences:

  • Shared storage may not always be available, since removable media can be ejected by the user. Media state can be checked using getExternalStorageState(File).
  • There is no security enforced with these files. For example, any application holding WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE can write to these files.

Shared storage devices returned here are considered a stable part of the device, including physical media slots under a protective cover. The returned paths do not include transient devices, such as USB flash drives connected to handheld devices.

An application may store data on any or all of the returned devices. For example, an app may choose to store large files on the device with the most available space, as measured by StatFs.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write files under the returned path. Write access outside of these paths on secondary external storage devices is not available.

Returns
File[] the absolute paths to application-specific directories. Some individual paths may be null if that shared storage is not currently available. The first path returned is the same as getObbDir()

See also:

getPackageCodePath

Added in API level 8
String getPackageCodePath ()

Return the full path to this context's primary Android package. The Android package is a ZIP file which contains application's primary code and assets.

Note: this is not generally useful for applications, since they should not be directly accessing the file system.

Returns
String String Path to the code and assets.

getPackageManager

Added in API level 1
PackageManager getPackageManager ()

Return PackageManager instance to find global package information.

Returns
PackageManager

getPackageName

Added in API level 1
String getPackageName ()

Return the name of this application's package.

Returns
String

getPackageResourcePath

Added in API level 8
String getPackageResourcePath ()

Return the full path to this context's primary Android package. The Android package is a ZIP file which contains the application's primary resources.

Note: this is not generally useful for applications, since they should not be directly accessing the file system.

Returns
String String Path to the resources.

getResources

Added in API level 1
Resources getResources ()

Returns a Resources instance for the application's package.

Note: Implementations of this method should return a Resources instance that is consistent with the AssetManager instance returned by getAssets(). For example, they should share the same Configuration object.

Returns
Resources a Resources instance for the application's package

See also:

getSharedPreferences

Added in API level 1
SharedPreferences getSharedPreferences (String name, 
                int mode)

Retrieve and hold the contents of the preferences file 'name', returning a SharedPreferences through which you can retrieve and modify its values. Only one instance of the SharedPreferences object is returned to any callers for the same name, meaning they will see each other's edits as soon as they are made.

Parameters
name String: Desired preferences file. If a preferences file by this name does not exist, it will be created when you retrieve an editor (SharedPreferences.edit()) and then commit changes (Editor.commit()).
mode int: Operating mode. Use 0 or MODE_PRIVATE for the default operation.
Returns
SharedPreferences The single SharedPreferences instance that can be used to retrieve and modify the preference values.

See also:

getString

Added in API level 1
String getString (int resId, 
                Object... formatArgs)

Returns a localized formatted string from the application's package's default string table, substituting the format arguments as defined in Formatter and format(String, Object...).

Parameters
resId int: Resource id for the format string
formatArgs Object: The format arguments that will be used for substitution.
Returns
String The string data associated with the resource, formatted and stripped of styled text information.

getString

Added in API level 1
String getString (int resId)

Returns a localized string from the application's package's default string table.

Parameters
resId int: Resource id for the string
Returns
String The string data associated with the resource, stripped of styled text information.

getSystemService

Added in API level 23
T getSystemService (Class<T> serviceClass)

Return the handle to a system-level service by class.

Currently available classes are: WindowManager, LayoutInflater, ActivityManager, PowerManager, AlarmManager, NotificationManager, KeyguardManager, LocationManager, SearchManager, Vibrator, ConnectivityManager, WifiManager, AudioManager, MediaRouter, TelephonyManager, SubscriptionManager, InputMethodManager, UiModeManager, DownloadManager, BatteryManager, JobScheduler, NetworkStatsManager.

Note: System services obtained via this API may be closely associated with the Context in which they are obtained from. In general, do not share the service objects between various different contexts (Activities, Applications, Services, Providers, etc.)

Parameters
serviceClass Class: The class of the desired service.
Returns
T The service or null if the class is not a supported system service.

getSystemService

Added in API level 1
Object getSystemService (String name)

Return the handle to a system-level service by name. The class of the returned object varies by the requested name. Currently available names are:

WINDOW_SERVICE ("window")
The top-level window manager in which you can place custom windows. The returned object is a WindowManager.
LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE ("layout_inflater")
A LayoutInflater for inflating layout resources in this context.
ACTIVITY_SERVICE ("activity")
A ActivityManager for interacting with the global activity state of the system.
POWER_SERVICE ("power")
A PowerManager for controlling power management.
ALARM_SERVICE ("alarm")
A AlarmManager for receiving intents at the time of your choosing.
NOTIFICATION_SERVICE ("notification")
A NotificationManager for informing the user of background events.
KEYGUARD_SERVICE ("keyguard")
A KeyguardManager for controlling keyguard.
LOCATION_SERVICE ("location")
A LocationManager for controlling location (e.g., GPS) updates.
SEARCH_SERVICE ("search")
A SearchManager for handling search.
VIBRATOR_SERVICE ("vibrator")
A Vibrator for interacting with the vibrator hardware.
CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE ("connection")
A ConnectivityManager for handling management of network connections.
WIFI_SERVICE ("wifi")
A WifiManager for management of Wi-Fi connectivity. On releases before NYC, it should only be obtained from an application context, and not from any other derived context to avoid memory leaks within the calling process.
WIFI_P2P_SERVICE ("wifip2p")
A WifiP2pManager for management of Wi-Fi Direct connectivity.
INPUT_METHOD_SERVICE ("input_method")
An InputMethodManager for management of input methods.
UI_MODE_SERVICE ("uimode")
An UiModeManager for controlling UI modes.
DOWNLOAD_SERVICE ("download")
A DownloadManager for requesting HTTP downloads
BATTERY_SERVICE ("batterymanager")
A BatteryManager for managing battery state
JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE ("taskmanager")
A JobScheduler for managing scheduled tasks
NETWORK_STATS_SERVICE ("netstats")
A NetworkStatsManager for querying network usage statistics.
HARDWARE_PROPERTIES_SERVICE ("hardware_properties")
A HardwarePropertiesManager for accessing hardware properties.

Note: System services obtained via this API may be closely associated with the Context in which they are obtained from. In general, do not share the service objects between various different contexts (Activities, Applications, Services, Providers, etc.)

Parameters
name String: The name of the desired service.
Returns
Object The service or null if the name does not exist.

See also:

getSystemServiceName

Added in API level 23
String getSystemServiceName (Class<?> serviceClass)

Gets the name of the system-level service that is represented by the specified class.

Parameters
serviceClass Class: The class of the desired service.
Returns
String The service name or null if the class is not a supported system service.

getText

Added in API level 1
CharSequence getText (int resId)

Return a localized, styled CharSequence from the application's package's default string table.

Parameters
resId int: Resource id for the CharSequence text
Returns
CharSequence

getTheme

Added in API level 1
Resources.Theme getTheme ()

Return the Theme object associated with this Context.

Returns
Resources.Theme

getWallpaper

Added in API level 1
Drawable getWallpaper ()

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.get() instead.

Returns
Drawable

getWallpaperDesiredMinimumHeight

Added in API level 1
int getWallpaperDesiredMinimumHeight ()

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.getDesiredMinimumHeight() instead.

Returns
int

getWallpaperDesiredMinimumWidth

Added in API level 1
int getWallpaperDesiredMinimumWidth ()

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.getDesiredMinimumWidth() instead.

Returns
int

grantUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void grantUriPermission (String toPackage, 
                Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags)

Grant permission to access a specific Uri to another package, regardless of whether that package has general permission to access the Uri's content provider. This can be used to grant specific, temporary permissions, typically in response to user interaction (such as the user opening an attachment that you would like someone else to display).

Normally you should use Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION with the Intent being used to start an activity instead of this function directly. If you use this function directly, you should be sure to call revokeUriPermission(Uri, int) when the target should no longer be allowed to access it.

To succeed, the content provider owning the Uri must have set the grantUriPermissions attribute in its manifest or included the <grant-uri-permissions> tag.

Parameters
toPackage String: The package you would like to allow to access the Uri.
uri Uri: The Uri you would like to grant access to.
modeFlags int: The desired access modes. Any combination of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION, Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION, Intent.FLAG_GRANT_PERSISTABLE_URI_PERMISSION, or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_PREFIX_URI_PERMISSION.

See also:

isDeviceProtectedStorage

Added in API level 24
boolean isDeviceProtectedStorage ()

Indicates if the storage APIs of this Context are backed by device-protected storage.

Returns
boolean

See also:

isRestricted

Added in API level 4
boolean isRestricted ()

Indicates whether this Context is restricted.

Returns
boolean true if this Context is restricted, false otherwise.

See also:

moveDatabaseFrom

Added in API level 24
boolean moveDatabaseFrom (Context sourceContext, 
                String name)

Move an existing database file from the given source storage context to this context. This is typically used to migrate data between storage locations after an upgrade, such as migrating to device protected storage.

The database must be closed before being moved.

Parameters
sourceContext Context: The source context which contains the existing database to move.
name String: The name of the database file.
Returns
boolean true if the move was successful or if the database didn't exist in the source context, otherwise false.

See also:

moveSharedPreferencesFrom

Added in API level 24
boolean moveSharedPreferencesFrom (Context sourceContext, 
                String name)

Move an existing shared preferences file from the given source storage context to this context. This is typically used to migrate data between storage locations after an upgrade, such as moving to device protected storage.

Parameters
sourceContext Context: The source context which contains the existing shared preferences to move.
name String: The name of the shared preferences file.
Returns
boolean true if the move was successful or if the shared preferences didn't exist in the source context, otherwise false.

See also:

obtainStyledAttributes

Added in API level 1
TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes (AttributeSet set, 
                int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme. See obtainStyledAttributes(AttributeSet, int[], int, int) for more information.

Parameters
set AttributeSet
attrs int
Returns
TypedArray

See also:

obtainStyledAttributes

Added in API level 1
TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes (AttributeSet set, 
                int[] attrs, 
                int defStyleAttr, 
                int defStyleRes)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme. See obtainStyledAttributes(AttributeSet, int[], int, int) for more information.

Parameters
set AttributeSet
attrs int
defStyleAttr int
defStyleRes int
Returns
TypedArray

See also:

obtainStyledAttributes

Added in API level 1
TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes (int resid, 
                int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme. See obtainStyledAttributes(int, int[]) for more information.

Parameters
resid int
attrs int
Returns
TypedArray
Throws
Resources.NotFoundException

See also:

obtainStyledAttributes

Added in API level 1
TypedArray obtainStyledAttributes (int[] attrs)

Retrieve styled attribute information in this Context's theme. See obtainStyledAttributes(int[]) for more information.

Parameters
attrs int
Returns
TypedArray

See also:

openFileInput

Added in API level 1
FileInputStream openFileInput (String name)

Open a private file associated with this Context's application package for reading.

Parameters
name String: The name of the file to open; can not contain path separators.
Returns
FileInputStream The resulting FileInputStream.
Throws
FileNotFoundException

See also:

openFileOutput

Added in API level 1
FileOutputStream openFileOutput (String name, 
                int mode)

Open a private file associated with this Context's application package for writing. Creates the file if it doesn't already exist.

No additional permissions are required for the calling app to read or write the returned file.

Parameters
name String: The name of the file to open; can not contain path separators.
mode int: Operating mode. Use 0 or MODE_PRIVATE for the default operation. Use MODE_APPEND to append to an existing file.
Returns
FileOutputStream The resulting FileOutputStream.
Throws
FileNotFoundException

See also:

openOrCreateDatabase

Added in API level 11
SQLiteDatabase openOrCreateDatabase (String name, 
                int mode, 
                SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory factory, 
                DatabaseErrorHandler errorHandler)

Open a new private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package. Creates the database file if it doesn't exist.

Accepts input param: a concrete instance of DatabaseErrorHandler to be used to handle corruption when sqlite reports database corruption.

Parameters
name String: The name (unique in the application package) of the database.
mode int: Operating mode. Use 0 or MODE_PRIVATE for the default operation. Use MODE_ENABLE_WRITE_AHEAD_LOGGING to enable write-ahead logging by default. Use MODE_NO_LOCALIZED_COLLATORS to disable localized collators.
factory SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory: An optional factory class that is called to instantiate a cursor when query is called.
errorHandler DatabaseErrorHandler: the DatabaseErrorHandler to be used when sqlite reports database corruption. if null, DefaultDatabaseErrorHandler is assumed.
Returns
SQLiteDatabase The contents of a newly created database with the given name.
Throws
SQLiteException if the database file could not be opened.

See also:

openOrCreateDatabase

Added in API level 1
SQLiteDatabase openOrCreateDatabase (String name, 
                int mode, 
                SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory factory)

Open a new private SQLiteDatabase associated with this Context's application package. Create the database file if it doesn't exist.

Parameters
name String: The name (unique in the application package) of the database.
mode int: Operating mode. Use 0 or MODE_PRIVATE for the default operation. Use MODE_ENABLE_WRITE_AHEAD_LOGGING to enable write-ahead logging by default. Use MODE_NO_LOCALIZED_COLLATORS to disable localized collators.
factory SQLiteDatabase.CursorFactory: An optional factory class that is called to instantiate a cursor when query is called.
Returns
SQLiteDatabase The contents of a newly created database with the given name.
Throws
SQLiteException if the database file could not be opened.

See also:

peekWallpaper

Added in API level 1
Drawable peekWallpaper ()

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.peek() instead.

Returns
Drawable

registerComponentCallbacks

Added in API level 14
void registerComponentCallbacks (ComponentCallbacks callback)

Add a new ComponentCallbacks to the base application of the Context, which will be called at the same times as the ComponentCallbacks methods of activities and other components are called. Note that you must be sure to use unregisterComponentCallbacks(ComponentCallbacks) when appropriate in the future; this will not be removed for you.

Parameters
callback ComponentCallbacks: The interface to call. This can be either a ComponentCallbacks or ComponentCallbacks2 interface.

registerReceiver

Added in API level 1
Intent registerReceiver (BroadcastReceiver receiver, 
                IntentFilter filter)

Register a BroadcastReceiver to be run in the main activity thread. The receiver will be called with any broadcast Intent that matches filter, in the main application thread.

The system may broadcast Intents that are "sticky" -- these stay around after the broadcast as finished, to be sent to any later registrations. If your IntentFilter matches one of these sticky Intents, that Intent will be returned by this function and sent to your receiver as if it had just been broadcast.

There may be multiple sticky Intents that match filter, in which case each of these will be sent to receiver. In this case, only one of these can be returned directly by the function; which of these that is returned is arbitrarily decided by the system.

If you know the Intent your are registering for is sticky, you can supply null for your receiver. In this case, no receiver is registered -- the function simply returns the sticky Intent that matches filter. In the case of multiple matches, the same rules as described above apply.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

As of ICE_CREAM_SANDWICH, receivers registered with this method will correctly respect the setPackage(String) specified for an Intent being broadcast. Prior to that, it would be ignored and delivered to all matching registered receivers. Be careful if using this for security.

Note: this method cannot be called from a BroadcastReceiver component; that is, from a BroadcastReceiver that is declared in an application's manifest. It is okay, however, to call this method from another BroadcastReceiver that has itself been registered at run time with registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter), since the lifetime of such a registered BroadcastReceiver is tied to the object that registered it.

Parameters
receiver BroadcastReceiver: The BroadcastReceiver to handle the broadcast.
filter IntentFilter: Selects the Intent broadcasts to be received.
Returns
Intent The first sticky intent found that matches filter, or null if there are none.

See also:

registerReceiver

Added in API level 1
Intent registerReceiver (BroadcastReceiver receiver, 
                IntentFilter filter, 
                String broadcastPermission, 
                Handler scheduler)

Register to receive intent broadcasts, to run in the context of scheduler. See registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter) for more information. This allows you to enforce permissions on who can broadcast intents to your receiver, or have the receiver run in a different thread than the main application thread.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

As of ICE_CREAM_SANDWICH, receivers registered with this method will correctly respect the setPackage(String) specified for an Intent being broadcast. Prior to that, it would be ignored and delivered to all matching registered receivers. Be careful if using this for security.

Parameters
receiver BroadcastReceiver: The BroadcastReceiver to handle the broadcast.
filter IntentFilter: Selects the Intent broadcasts to be received.
broadcastPermission String: String naming a permissions that a broadcaster must hold in order to send an Intent to you. If null, no permission is required.
scheduler Handler: Handler identifying the thread that will receive the Intent. If null, the main thread of the process will be used.
Returns
Intent The first sticky intent found that matches filter, or null if there are none.

See also:

removeStickyBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void removeStickyBroadcast (Intent intent)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Remove the data previously sent with sendStickyBroadcast(Intent), so that it is as if the sticky broadcast had never happened.

You must hold the BROADCAST_STICKY permission in order to use this API. If you do not hold that permission, SecurityException will be thrown.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent that was previously broadcast.

See also:

removeStickyBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void removeStickyBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Version of removeStickyBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

You must hold the BROADCAST_STICKY permission in order to use this API. If you do not hold that permission, SecurityException will be thrown.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent that was previously broadcast.
user UserHandle: UserHandle to remove the sticky broadcast from.

See also:

revokeUriPermission

Added in API level 1
void revokeUriPermission (Uri uri, 
                int modeFlags)

Remove all permissions to access a particular content provider Uri that were previously added with grantUriPermission(String, Uri, int). The given Uri will match all previously granted Uris that are the same or a sub-path of the given Uri. That is, revoking "content://foo/target" will revoke both "content://foo/target" and "content://foo/target/sub", but not "content://foo". It will not remove any prefix grants that exist at a higher level.

Prior to LOLLIPOP, if you did not have regular permission access to a Uri, but had received access to it through a specific Uri permission grant, you could not revoke that grant with this function and a SecurityException would be thrown. As of LOLLIPOP, this function will not throw a security exception, but will remove whatever permission grants to the Uri had been given to the app (or none).

Parameters
uri Uri: The Uri you would like to revoke access to.
modeFlags int: The desired access modes. Any combination of Intent.FLAG_GRANT_READ_URI_PERMISSION or Intent.FLAG_GRANT_WRITE_URI_PERMISSION.

See also:

sendBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void sendBroadcast (Intent intent, 
                String receiverPermission)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers, allowing an optional required permission to be enforced. This call is asynchronous; it returns immediately, and you will continue executing while the receivers are run. No results are propagated from receivers and receivers can not abort the broadcast. If you want to allow receivers to propagate results or abort the broadcast, you must send an ordered broadcast using sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String).

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
receiverPermission String: (optional) String naming a permission that a receiver must hold in order to receive your broadcast. If null, no permission is required.

See also:

sendBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void sendBroadcast (Intent intent)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers. This call is asynchronous; it returns immediately, and you will continue executing while the receivers are run. No results are propagated from receivers and receivers can not abort the broadcast. If you want to allow receivers to propagate results or abort the broadcast, you must send an ordered broadcast using sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String).

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.

See also:

sendBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void sendBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

Parameters
intent Intent: The intent to broadcast
user UserHandle: UserHandle to send the intent to.

See also:

sendBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void sendBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user, 
                String receiverPermission)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent, String) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
user UserHandle: UserHandle to send the intent to.
receiverPermission String: (optional) String naming a permission that a receiver must hold in order to receive your broadcast. If null, no permission is required.

See also:

sendOrderedBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void sendOrderedBroadcast (Intent intent, 
                String receiverPermission, 
                BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, 
                Handler scheduler, 
                int initialCode, 
                String initialData, 
                Bundle initialExtras)

Version of sendBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to receive data back from the broadcast. This is accomplished by supplying your own BroadcastReceiver when calling, which will be treated as a final receiver at the end of the broadcast -- its onReceive(Context, Intent) method will be called with the result values collected from the other receivers. The broadcast will be serialized in the same way as calling sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String).

Like sendBroadcast(Intent), this method is asynchronous; it will return before resultReceiver.onReceive() is called.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
receiverPermission String: String naming a permissions that a receiver must hold in order to receive your broadcast. If null, no permission is required.
resultReceiver BroadcastReceiver: Your own BroadcastReceiver to treat as the final receiver of the broadcast.
scheduler Handler: A custom Handler with which to schedule the resultReceiver callback; if null it will be scheduled in the Context's main thread.
initialCode int: An initial value for the result code. Often Activity.RESULT_OK.
initialData String: An initial value for the result data. Often null.
initialExtras Bundle: An initial value for the result extras. Often null.

See also:

sendOrderedBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void sendOrderedBroadcast (Intent intent, 
                String receiverPermission)

Broadcast the given intent to all interested BroadcastReceivers, delivering them one at a time to allow more preferred receivers to consume the broadcast before it is delivered to less preferred receivers. This call is asynchronous; it returns immediately, and you will continue executing while the receivers are run.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
receiverPermission String: (optional) String naming a permissions that a receiver must hold in order to receive your broadcast. If null, no permission is required.

See also:

sendOrderedBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void sendOrderedBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user, 
                String receiverPermission, 
                BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, 
                Handler scheduler, 
                int initialCode, 
                String initialData, 
                Bundle initialExtras)

Version of sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String, BroadcastReceiver, Handler, int, String, Bundle) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
user UserHandle: UserHandle to send the intent to.
receiverPermission String: String naming a permissions that a receiver must hold in order to receive your broadcast. If null, no permission is required.
resultReceiver BroadcastReceiver: Your own BroadcastReceiver to treat as the final receiver of the broadcast.
scheduler Handler: A custom Handler with which to schedule the resultReceiver callback; if null it will be scheduled in the Context's main thread.
initialCode int: An initial value for the result code. Often Activity.RESULT_OK.
initialData String: An initial value for the result data. Often null.
initialExtras Bundle: An initial value for the result extras. Often null.

See also:

sendStickyBroadcast

Added in API level 1
void sendStickyBroadcast (Intent intent)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Perform a sendBroadcast(Intent) that is "sticky," meaning the Intent you are sending stays around after the broadcast is complete, so that others can quickly retrieve that data through the return value of registerReceiver(BroadcastReceiver, IntentFilter). In all other ways, this behaves the same as sendBroadcast(Intent).

You must hold the BROADCAST_STICKY permission in order to use this API. If you do not hold that permission, SecurityException will be thrown.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast, and the Intent will be held to be re-broadcast to future receivers.

See also:

sendStickyBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void sendStickyBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Version of sendStickyBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast, and the Intent will be held to be re-broadcast to future receivers.
user UserHandle: UserHandle to send the intent to.

See also:

sendStickyOrderedBroadcast

Added in API level 5
void sendStickyOrderedBroadcast (Intent intent, 
                BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, 
                Handler scheduler, 
                int initialCode, 
                String initialData, 
                Bundle initialExtras)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Version of sendStickyBroadcast(Intent) that allows you to receive data back from the broadcast. This is accomplished by supplying your own BroadcastReceiver when calling, which will be treated as a final receiver at the end of the broadcast -- its onReceive(Context, Intent) method will be called with the result values collected from the other receivers. The broadcast will be serialized in the same way as calling sendOrderedBroadcast(Intent, String).

Like sendBroadcast(Intent), this method is asynchronous; it will return before resultReceiver.onReceive() is called. Note that the sticky data stored is only the data you initially supply to the broadcast, not the result of any changes made by the receivers.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
resultReceiver BroadcastReceiver: Your own BroadcastReceiver to treat as the final receiver of the broadcast.
scheduler Handler: A custom Handler with which to schedule the resultReceiver callback; if null it will be scheduled in the Context's main thread.
initialCode int: An initial value for the result code. Often Activity.RESULT_OK.
initialData String: An initial value for the result data. Often null.
initialExtras Bundle: An initial value for the result extras. Often null.

See also:

sendStickyOrderedBroadcastAsUser

Added in API level 17
void sendStickyOrderedBroadcastAsUser (Intent intent, 
                UserHandle user, 
                BroadcastReceiver resultReceiver, 
                Handler scheduler, 
                int initialCode, 
                String initialData, 
                Bundle initialExtras)

This method was deprecated in API level 21.
Sticky broadcasts should not be used. They provide no security (anyone can access them), no protection (anyone can modify them), and many other problems. The recommended pattern is to use a non-sticky broadcast to report that something has changed, with another mechanism for apps to retrieve the current value whenever desired.

Version of sendStickyOrderedBroadcast(Intent, BroadcastReceiver, Handler, int, String, Bundle) that allows you to specify the user the broadcast will be sent to. This is not available to applications that are not pre-installed on the system image. Using it requires holding the INTERACT_ACROSS_USERS permission.

See BroadcastReceiver for more information on Intent broadcasts.

Parameters
intent Intent: The Intent to broadcast; all receivers matching this Intent will receive the broadcast.
user UserHandle: UserHandle to send the intent to.
resultReceiver BroadcastReceiver: Your own BroadcastReceiver to treat as the final receiver of the broadcast.
scheduler Handler: A custom Handler with which to schedule the resultReceiver callback; if null it will be scheduled in the Context's main thread.
initialCode int: An initial value for the result code. Often Activity.RESULT_OK.
initialData String: An initial value for the result data. Often null.
initialExtras Bundle: An initial value for the result extras. Often null.

See also:

setTheme

Added in API level 1
void setTheme (int resid)

Set the base theme for this context. Note that this should be called before any views are instantiated in the Context (for example before calling setContentView(View) or inflate(int, ViewGroup)).

Parameters
resid int: The style resource describing the theme.

setWallpaper

Added in API level 1
void setWallpaper (Bitmap bitmap)

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.set() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

Parameters
bitmap Bitmap
Throws
IOException

setWallpaper

Added in API level 1
void setWallpaper (InputStream data)

This method was deprecated in API level 5.
Use WallpaperManager.set() instead.

This method requires the caller to hold the permission SET_WALLPAPER.

Parameters
data InputStream
Throws
IOException

startActivities

Added in API level 16
void startActivities (Intent[] intents, 
                Bundle options)

Launch multiple new activities. This is generally the same as calling startActivity(Intent) for the first Intent in the array, that activity during its creation calling startActivity(Intent) for the second entry, etc. Note that unlike that approach, generally none of the activities except the last in the array will be created at this point, but rather will be created when the user first visits them (due to pressing back from the activity on top).

This method throws ActivityNotFoundException if there was no Activity found for any given Intent. In this case the state of the activity stack is undefined (some Intents in the list may be on it, some not), so you probably want to avoid such situations.

Parameters
intents Intent: An array of Intents to be started.
options Bundle: Additional options for how the Activity should be started. See Context.startActivity(Intent, Bundle) for more details.
Throws
ActivityNotFoundException  

See also:

startActivities

Added in API level 11
void startActivities (Intent[] intents)

Same as startActivities(Intent[], Bundle) with no options specified.

Parameters
intents Intent: An array of Intents to be started.
Throws
ActivityNotFoundException  

See also:

startActivity

Added in API level 1
void startActivity (Intent intent)

Same as startActivity(Intent, Bundle) with no options specified.

Parameters
intent Intent: The description of the activity to start.
Throws
ActivityNotFoundException   `

See also:

startActivity

Added in API level 16
void startActivity (Intent intent, 
                Bundle options)

Launch a new activity. You will not receive any information about when the activity exits.

Note that if this method is being called from outside of an Activity Context, then the Intent must include the FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK launch flag. This is because, without being started from an existing Activity, there is no existing task in which to place the new activity and thus it needs to be placed in its own separate task.

This method throws ActivityNotFoundException if there was no Activity found to run the given Intent.

Parameters
intent Intent: The description of the activity to start.
options Bundle: Additional options for how the Activity should be started. May be null if there are no options. See ActivityOptions for how to build the Bundle supplied here; there are no supported definitions for building it manually.
Throws
ActivityNotFoundException  

See also:

startInstrumentation

Added in API level 1
boolean startInstrumentation (ComponentName className, 
                String profileFile, 
                Bundle arguments)

Start executing an Instrumentation class. The given Instrumentation component will be run by killing its target application (if currently running), starting the target process, instantiating the instrumentation component, and then letting it drive the application.

This function is not synchronous -- it returns as soon as the instrumentation has started and while it is running.

Instrumentation is normally only allowed to run against a package that is either unsigned or signed with a signature that the the instrumentation package is also signed with (ensuring the target trusts the instrumentation).

Parameters
className ComponentName: Name of the Instrumentation component to be run.
profileFile String: Optional path to write profiling data as the instrumentation runs, or null for no profiling.
arguments Bundle: Additional optional arguments to pass to the instrumentation, or null.
Returns
boolean true if the instrumentation was successfully started, else false if it could not be found.

startIntentSender

Added in API level 5
void startIntentSender (IntentSender intent, 
                Intent fillInIntent, 
                int flagsMask, 
                int flagsValues, 
                int extraFlags)

Same as startIntentSender(IntentSender, Intent, int, int, int, Bundle) with no options specified.

Parameters
intent IntentSender: The IntentSender to launch.
fillInIntent Intent: If non-null, this will be provided as the intent parameter to sendIntent(Context, int, Intent, IntentSender.OnFinished, Handler).
flagsMask int: Intent flags in the original IntentSender that you would like to change.
flagsValues int: Desired values for any bits set in flagsMask
extraFlags int: Always set to 0.
Throws
IntentSender.SendIntentException

See also:

startIntentSender

Added in API level 16
void startIntentSender (IntentSender intent, 
                Intent fillInIntent, 
                int flagsMask, 
                int flagsValues, 
                int extraFlags, 
                Bundle options)

Like startActivity(Intent, Bundle), but taking a IntentSender to start. If the IntentSender is for an activity, that activity will be started as if you had called the regular startActivity(Intent) here; otherwise, its associated action will be executed (such as sending a broadcast) as if you had called IntentSender.sendIntent on it.

Parameters
intent IntentSender: The IntentSender to launch.
fillInIntent Intent: If non-null, this will be provided as the intent parameter to sendIntent(Context, int, Intent, IntentSender.OnFinished, Handler).
flagsMask int: Intent flags in the original IntentSender that you would like to change.
flagsValues int: Desired values for any bits set in flagsMask
extraFlags int: Always set to 0.
options Bundle: Additional options for how the Activity should be started. See Context.startActivity(Intent, Bundle) for more details. If options have also been supplied by the IntentSender, options given here will override any that conflict with those given by the IntentSender.
Throws
IntentSender.SendIntentException

See also:

startService

Added in API level 1
ComponentName startService (Intent service)

Request that a given application service be started. The Intent should contain either contain the complete class name of a specific service implementation to start or a specific package name to target. If the Intent is less specified, it log a warning about this and which of the multiple matching services it finds and uses will be undefined. If this service is not already running, it will be instantiated and started (creating a process for it if needed); if it is running then it remains running.

Every call to this method will result in a corresponding call to the target service's onStartCommand(Intent, int, int) method, with the intent given here. This provides a convenient way to submit jobs to a service without having to bind and call on to its interface.

Using startService() overrides the default service lifetime that is managed by bindService(Intent, ServiceConnection, int): it requires the service to remain running until stopService(Intent) is called, regardless of whether any clients are connected to it. Note that calls to startService() are not nesting: no matter how many times you call startService(), a single call to stopService(Intent) will stop it.

The system attempts to keep running services around as much as possible. The only time they should be stopped is if the current foreground application is using so many resources that the service needs to be killed. If any errors happen in the service's process, it will automatically be restarted.

This function will throw SecurityException if you do not have permission to start the given service.

Note: Each call to startService() results in significant work done by the system to manage service lifecycle surrounding the processing of the intent, which can take multiple milliseconds of CPU time. Due to this cost, startService() should not be used for frequent intent delivery to a service, and only for scheduling significant work. Use bound services for high frequency calls.

Parameters
service Intent: Identifies the service to be started. The Intent must be either fully explicit (supplying a component name) or specify a specific package name it is targetted to. Additional values may be included in the Intent extras to supply arguments along with this specific start call.
Returns
ComponentName If the service is being started or is already running, the ComponentName of the actual service that was started is returned; else if the service does not exist null is returned.
Throws
SecurityException  

See also:

stopService

Added in API level 1
boolean stopService (Intent service)

Request that a given application service be stopped. If the service is not running, nothing happens. Otherwise it is stopped. Note that calls to startService() are not counted -- this stops the service no matter how many times it was started.

Note that if a stopped service still has ServiceConnection objects bound to it with the BIND_AUTO_CREATE set, it will not be destroyed until all of these bindings are removed. See the Service documentation for more details on a service's lifecycle.

This function will throw SecurityException if you do not have permission to stop the given service.

Parameters
service Intent: Description of the service to be stopped. The Intent must be either fully explicit (supplying a component name) or specify a specific package name it is targetted to.
Returns
boolean If there is a service matching the given Intent that is already running, then it is stopped and true is returned; else false is returned.
Throws
SecurityException  

See also:

unbindService

Added in API level 1
void unbindService (ServiceConnection conn)

Disconnect from an application service. You will no longer receive calls as the service is restarted, and the service is now allowed to stop at any time.

Parameters
conn ServiceConnection: The connection interface previously supplied to bindService(). This parameter must not be null.

See also:

unregisterComponentCallbacks

Added in API level 14
void unregisterComponentCallbacks (ComponentCallbacks callback)

Remove a ComponentCallbacks object that was previously registered with registerComponentCallbacks(ComponentCallbacks).

Parameters
callback ComponentCallbacks

unregisterReceiver

Added in API level 1
void unregisterReceiver (BroadcastReceiver receiver)

Unregister a previously registered BroadcastReceiver. All filters that have been registered for this BroadcastReceiver will be removed.

Parameters
receiver BroadcastReceiver: The BroadcastReceiver to unregister.

See also:

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