Google Play uses the
attributes declared in your app manifest to filter your app from devices
that do not meet its platform version requirements. Before setting these
attributes, make sure that you understand
Google Play filters.
<uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="integer" android:targetSdkVersion="integer" android:maxSdkVersion="integer" />
- contained in:
Lets you express an application's compatibility with one or more versions of the Android platform, by means of an API Level integer. The API Level expressed by an application will be compared to the API Level of a given Android system, which may vary among different Android devices.
Despite its name, this element is used to specify the API Level, not the version number of the SDK (software development kit) or Android platform. The API Level is always a single integer. You cannot derive the API Level from its associated Android version number (for example, it is not the same as the major version or the sum of the major and minor versions).
Also read the document about Versioning Your Applications.
- An integer designating the minimum API Level required
for the application to run. The Android system will prevent the user from installing
the application if the system's API Level is lower than the value specified in
this attribute. You should always declare this attribute.
Caution: If you do not declare this attribute, the system assumes a default value of "1", which indicates that your application is compatible with all versions of Android. If your application is not compatible with all versions (for instance, it uses APIs introduced in API Level 3) and you have not declared the proper
minSdkVersion, then when installed on a system with an API Level less than 3, the application will crash during runtime when attempting to access the unavailable APIs. For this reason, be certain to declare the appropriate API Level in the
- An integer designating the API Level that the application targets. If not set, the default
value equals that given to
This attribute informs the system that you have tested against the target version and the system should not enable any compatibility behaviors to maintain your app's forward-compatibility with the target version. The application is still able to run on older versions (down to
As Android evolves with each new version, some behaviors and even appearances might change. However, if the API level of the platform is higher than the version declared by your app's
targetSdkVersion, the system may enable compatibility behaviors to ensure that your app continues to work the way you expect. You can disable such compatibility behaviors by specifying
targetSdkVersionto match the API level of the platform on which it's running. For example, setting this value to "11" or higher allows the system to apply a new default theme (Holo) to your app when running on Android 3.0 or higher and also disables screen compatibility mode when running on larger screens (because support for API level 11 implicitly supports larger screens).
There are many compatibility behaviors that the system may enable based on the value you set for this attribute. Several of these behaviors are described by the corresponding platform versions in the
To maintain your application along with each Android release, you should increase the value of this attribute to match the latest API level, then thoroughly test your application on the corresponding platform version.
Introduced in: API Level 4
- An integer designating the maximum API Level on which the application is
designed to run.
In Android 1.5, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.0.1, the system checks the value of this attribute when installing an application and when re-validating the application after a system update. In either case, if the application's
maxSdkVersionattribute is lower than the API Level used by the system itself, then the system will not allow the application to be installed. In the case of re-validation after system update, this effectively removes your application from the device.
To illustrate how this attribute can affect your application after system updates, consider the following example:
An application declaring
maxSdkVersion="5"in its manifest is published on Google Play. A user whose device is running Android 1.6 (API Level 4) downloads and installs the app. After a few weeks, the user receives an over-the-air system update to Android 2.0 (API Level 5). After the update is installed, the system checks the application's
maxSdkVersionand successfully re-validates it. The application functions as normal. However, some time later, the device receives another system update, this time to Android 2.0.1 (API Level 6). After the update, the system can no longer re-validate the application because the system's own API Level (6) is now higher than the maximum supported by the application (5). The system prevents the application from being visible to the user, in effect removing it from the device.
Warning: Declaring this attribute is not recommended. First, there is no need to set the attribute as means of blocking deployment of your application onto new versions of the Android platform as they are released. By design, new versions of the platform are fully backward-compatible. Your application should work properly on new versions, provided it uses only standard APIs and follows development best practices. Second, note that in some cases, declaring the attribute can result in your application being removed from users' devices after a system update to a higher API Level. Most devices on which your application is likely to be installed will receive periodic system updates over the air, so you should consider their effect on your application before setting this attribute.
Introduced in: API Level 4Future versions of Android (beyond Android 2.0.1) will no longer check or enforce the
maxSdkVersionattribute during installation or re-validation. Google Play will continue to use the attribute as a filter, however, when presenting users with applications available for download.
- introduced in:
- API Level 1
What is API Level?
API Level is an integer value that uniquely identifies the framework API revision offered by a version of the Android platform.
The Android platform provides a framework API that applications can use to interact with the underlying Android system. The framework API consists of:
- A core set of packages and classes
- A set of XML elements and attributes for declaring a manifest file
- A set of XML elements and attributes for declaring and accessing resources
- A set of Intents
- A set of permissions that applications can request, as well as permission enforcements included in the system
Each successive version of the Android platform can include updates to the Android application framework API that it delivers.
Updates to the framework API are designed so that the new API remains compatible with earlier versions of the API. That is, most changes in the API are additive and introduce new or replacement functionality. As parts of the API are upgraded, the older replaced parts are deprecated but are not removed, so that existing applications can still use them. In a very small number of cases, parts of the API may be modified or removed, although typically such changes are only needed to ensure API robustness and application or system security. All other API parts from earlier revisions are carried forward without modification.
The framework API that an Android platform delivers is specified using an integer identifier called "API Level". Each Android platform version supports exactly one API Level, although support is implicit for all earlier API Levels (down to API Level 1). The initial release of the Android platform provided API Level 1 and subsequent releases have incremented the API Level.
The table below specifies the API Level supported by each version of the Android platform. For information about the relative numbers of devices that are running each version, see the Platform Versions dashboards page.
Uses of API Level in Android
The API Level identifier serves a key role in ensuring the best possible experience for users and application developers:
- It lets the Android platform describe the maximum framework API revision that it supports
- It lets applications describe the framework API revision that they require
- It lets the system negotiate the installation of applications on the user's device, such that version-incompatible applications are not installed.
Each Android platform version stores its API Level identifier internally, in the Android system itself.
Applications can use a manifest element provided by the framework API —
<uses-sdk> — to describe the minimum and maximum API
Levels under which they are able to run, as well as the preferred API Level that
they are designed to support. The element offers three key attributes:
android:minSdkVersion— Specifies the minimum API Level on which the application is able to run. The default value is "1".
android:targetSdkVersion— Specifies the API Level on which the application is designed to run. In some cases, this allows the application to use manifest elements or behaviors defined in the target API Level, rather than being restricted to using only those defined for the minimum API Level.
android:maxSdkVersion— Specifies the maximum API Level on which the application is able to run. Important: Please read the
<uses-sdk>documentation before using this attribute.
For example, to specify the minimum system API Level that an application
requires in order to run, the application would include in its manifest a
<uses-sdk> element with a
attribute. The value of
android:minSdkVersion would be the integer
corresponding to the API Level of the earliest version of the Android platform
under which the application can run.
When the user attempts to install an application, or when revalidating an
appplication after a system update, the Android system first checks the
<uses-sdk> attributes in the application's manifest and
compares the values against its own internal API Level. The system allows the
installation to begin only if these conditions are met:
- If a
android:minSdkVersionattribute is declared, its value must be less than or equal to the system's API Level integer. If not declared, the system assumes that the application requires API Level 1.
- If a
android:maxSdkVersionattribute is declared, its value must be equal to or greater than the system's API Level integer. If not declared, the system assumes that the application has no maximum API Level. Please read the
<uses-sdk>documentation for more information about how the system handles this attribute.
When declared in an application's manifest, a
element might look like this:
<manifest> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="5" /> ... </manifest>
The principal reason that an application would declare an API Level in
android:minSdkVersion is to tell the Android system that it is
using APIs that were introduced in the API Level specified. If the
application were to be somehow installed on a platform with a lower API Level,
then it would crash at run-time when it tried to access APIs that don't exist.
The system prevents such an outcome by not allowing the application to be
installed if the lowest API Level it requires is higher than that of the
platform version on the target device.
For example, the
android.appwidget package was introduced with API
Level 3. If an application uses that API, it must declare a
android:minSdkVersion attribute with a value of "3". The
application will then be installable on platforms such as Android 1.5 (API Level
3) and Android 1.6 (API Level 4), but not on the Android 1.1 (API Level 2) and
Android 1.0 platforms (API Level 1).
For more information about how to specify an application's API Level
requirements, see the
section of the manifest file documentation.
The sections below provide information related to API level that you should consider when developing your application.
Application forward compatibility
Android applications are generally forward-compatible with new versions of the Android platform.
Because almost all changes to the framework API are additive, an Android application developed using any given version of the API (as specified by its API Level) is forward-compatible with later versions of the Android platform and higher API levels. The application should be able to run on all later versions of the Android platform, except in isolated cases where the application uses a part of the API that is later removed for some reason.
Forward compatibility is important because many Android-powered devices receive over-the-air (OTA) system updates. The user may install your application and use it successfully, then later receive an OTA update to a new version of the Android platform. Once the update is installed, your application will run in a new run-time version of the environment, but one that has the API and system capabilities that your application depends on.
In some cases, changes below the API, such those in the underlying system itself, may affect your application when it is run in the new environment. For that reason it's important for you, as the application developer, to understand how the application will look and behave in each system environment. To help you test your application on various versions of the Android platform, the Android SDK includes multiple platforms that you can download. Each platform includes a compatible system image that you can run in an AVD, to test your application.
Application backward compatibility
Android applications are not necessarily backward compatible with versions of the Android platform older than the version against which they were compiled.
Each new version of the Android platform can include new framework APIs, such as those that give applications access to new platform capabilities or replace existing API parts. The new APIs are accessible to applications when running on the new platform and, as mentioned above, also when running on later versions of the platform, as specified by API Level. Conversely, because earlier versions of the platform do not include the new APIs, applications that use the new APIs are unable to run on those platforms.
Although it's unlikely that an Android-powered device would be downgraded to a previous version of the platform, it's important to realize that there are likely to be many devices in the field that run earlier versions of the platform. Even among devices that receive OTA updates, some might lag and might not receive an update for a significant amount of time.
Selecting a platform version and API Level
When you are developing your application, you will need to choose the platform version against which you will compile the application. In general, you should compile your application against the lowest possible version of the platform that your application can support.
You can determine the lowest possible platform version by compiling the
application against successively lower build targets. After you determine the
lowest version, you should create an AVD using the corresponding platform
version (and API Level) and fully test your application. Make sure to declare a
android:minSdkVersion attribute in the application's manifest and
set its value to the API Level of the platform version.
Declaring a minimum API Level
If you build an application that uses APIs or system features introduced in
the latest platform version, you should set the
android:minSdkVersion attribute to the API Level of the latest
platform version. This ensures that users will only be able to install your
application if their devices are running a compatible version of the Android
platform. In turn, this ensures that your application can function properly on
If your application uses APIs introduced in the latest platform version but
does not declare a
android:minSdkVersion attribute, then
it will run properly on devices running the latest version of the platform, but
not on devices running earlier versions of the platform. In the latter
case, the application will crash at runtime when it tries to use APIs that don't
exist on the earlier versions.
Testing against higher API Levels
After compiling your application, you should make sure to test it on the
platform specified in the application's
attribute. To do so, create an AVD that uses the platform version required by
your application. Additionally, to ensure forward-compatibility, you should run
and test the application on all platforms that use a higher API Level than that
used by your application.
The Android SDK includes multiple platform versions that you can use, including the latest version, and provides an updater tool that you can use to download other platform versions as necessary.
To access the updater, use the
android command-line tool,
located in the <sdk>/tools directory. You can launch the SDK updater by
android sdk. You can
also simply double-click the android.bat (Windows) or android (OS X/Linux) file.
To run your application against different platform versions in the emulator, create an AVD for each platform version that you want to test. For more information about AVDs, see Creating and Managing Virtual Devices. If you are using a physical device for testing, ensure that you know the API Level of the Android platform it runs. See the table at the top of this document for a list of platform versions and their API Levels.
Filtering the Reference Documentation by API Level
Android platform reference documentation pages offer an
"API Level" control in the top-left area of each page. You can use the
control to show documentation only for parts of the API that are actually
accessible to your application, based on the API Level that it specifies in
android:minSdkVersion attribute of its manifest file.
To use filtering, select the checkbox to enable filtering, just below the page search box. Then set the "Filter by API Level" control to the same API Level as specified by your application. Notice that APIs introduced in a later API Level are then grayed out and their content is masked, since they would not be accessible to your application.
Filtering by API Level in the documentation does not provide a view of what is new or introduced in each API Level — it simply provides a way to view the entire API associated with a given API Level, while excluding API elements introduced in later API Levels.
If you decide that you don't want to filter the API documentation, just disable the feature using the checkbox. By default, API Level filtering is disabled, so that you can view the full framework API, regardless of API Level.
Also note that the reference documentation for individual API elements specifies the API Level at which each element was introduced. The API Level for packages and classes is specified as "Since <api level>" at the top-right corner of the content area on each documentation page. The API Level for class members is specified in their detailed description headers, at the right margin.