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added in API level 26

Path

public interface Path
implements Comparable<Path>, Iterable<Path>, Watchable

java.nio.file.Path


An object that may be used to locate a file in a file system. It will typically represent a system dependent file path.

A Path represents a path that is hierarchical and composed of a sequence of directory and file name elements separated by a special separator or delimiter. A root component, that identifies a file system hierarchy, may also be present. The name element that is farthest from the root of the directory hierarchy is the name of a file or directory. The other name elements are directory names. A Path can represent a root, a root and a sequence of names, or simply one or more name elements. A Path is considered to be an empty path if it consists solely of one name element that is empty. Accessing a file using an empty path is equivalent to accessing the default directory of the file system. Path defines the getFileName, getParent, getRoot, and subpath methods to access the path components or a subsequence of its name elements.

In addition to accessing the components of a path, a Path also defines the resolve and resolveSibling methods to combine paths. The relativize method that can be used to construct a relative path between two paths. Paths can be compared, and tested against each other using the startsWith and endsWith methods.

This interface extends Watchable interface so that a directory located by a path can be registered with a WatchService and entries in the directory watched.

WARNING: This interface is only intended to be implemented by those developing custom file system implementations. Methods may be added to this interface in future releases.

Accessing Files

Paths may be used with the Files class to operate on files, directories, and other types of files. For example, suppose we want a BufferedReader to read text from a file "access.log". The file is located in a directory "logs" relative to the current working directory and is UTF-8 encoded.

     Path path = FileSystems.getDefault().getPath("logs", "access.log");
     BufferedReader reader = Files.newBufferedReader(path, StandardCharsets.UTF_8);
 

Interoperability

Paths associated with the default provider are generally interoperable with the java.io.File class. Paths created by other providers are unlikely to be interoperable with the abstract path names represented by java.io.File. The toPath method may be used to obtain a Path from the abstract path name represented by a java.io.File object. The resulting Path can be used to operate on the same file as the java.io.File object. In addition, the toFile method is useful to construct a File from the String representation of a Path.

Concurrency

Implementations of this interface are immutable and safe for use by multiple concurrent threads.

See also:

Summary

Public methods

abstract int compareTo(Path other)

Compares two abstract paths lexicographically.

abstract boolean endsWith(String other)

Tests if this path ends with a Path, constructed by converting the given path string, in exactly the manner specified by the endsWith(Path) method.

abstract boolean endsWith(Path other)

Tests if this path ends with the given path.

abstract boolean equals(Object other)

Tests this path for equality with the given object.

abstract Path getFileName()

Returns the name of the file or directory denoted by this path as a Path object.

abstract FileSystem getFileSystem()

Returns the file system that created this object.

abstract Path getName(int index)

Returns a name element of this path as a Path object.

abstract int getNameCount()

Returns the number of name elements in the path.

abstract Path getParent()

Returns the parent path, or null if this path does not have a parent.

abstract Path getRoot()

Returns the root component of this path as a Path object, or null if this path does not have a root component.

abstract int hashCode()

Computes a hash code for this path.

abstract boolean isAbsolute()

Tells whether or not this path is absolute.

abstract Iterator<Path> iterator()

Returns an iterator over the name elements of this path.

abstract Path normalize()

Returns a path that is this path with redundant name elements eliminated.

abstract WatchKey register(WatchService watcher, Kind...<?> events)

Registers the file located by this path with a watch service.

abstract WatchKey register(WatchService watcher, Kind[]<?> events, Modifier... modifiers)

Registers the file located by this path with a watch service.

abstract Path relativize(Path other)

Constructs a relative path between this path and a given path.

abstract Path resolve(Path other)

Resolve the given path against this path.

abstract Path resolve(String other)

Converts a given path string to a Path and resolves it against this Path in exactly the manner specified by the resolve method.

abstract Path resolveSibling(String other)

Converts a given path string to a Path and resolves it against this path's parent path in exactly the manner specified by the resolveSibling method.

abstract Path resolveSibling(Path other)

Resolves the given path against this path's parent path.

abstract boolean startsWith(Path other)

Tests if this path starts with the given path.

abstract boolean startsWith(String other)

Tests if this path starts with a Path, constructed by converting the given path string, in exactly the manner specified by the startsWith(Path) method.

abstract Path subpath(int beginIndex, int endIndex)

Returns a relative Path that is a subsequence of the name elements of this path.

abstract Path toAbsolutePath()

Returns a Path object representing the absolute path of this path.

abstract File toFile()

Returns a File object representing this path.

abstract Path toRealPath(LinkOption... options)

Returns the real path of an existing file.

abstract String toString()

Returns the string representation of this path.

abstract URI toUri()

Returns a URI to represent this path.

Inherited methods

Public methods

compareTo

added in API level 26
public abstract int compareTo (Path other)

Compares two abstract paths lexicographically. The ordering defined by this method is provider specific, and in the case of the default provider, platform specific. This method does not access the file system and neither file is required to exist.

This method may not be used to compare paths that are associated with different file system providers.

Parameters
other Path: the path compared to this path.

Returns
int zero if the argument is equal to this path, a value less than zero if this path is lexicographically less than the argument, or a value greater than zero if this path is lexicographically greater than the argument

Throws
ClassCastException if the paths are associated with different providers

endsWith

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean endsWith (String other)

Tests if this path ends with a Path, constructed by converting the given path string, in exactly the manner specified by the endsWith(Path) method. On UNIX for example, the path "foo/bar" ends with "foo/bar" and "bar". It does not end with "r" or "/bar". Note that trailing separators are not taken into account, and so invoking this method on the Path"foo/bar" with the String "bar/" returns true.

Parameters
other String: the given path string

Returns
boolean true if this path ends with the given path; otherwise false

Throws
InvalidPathException If the path string cannot be converted to a Path.

endsWith

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean endsWith (Path other)

Tests if this path ends with the given path.

If the given path has N elements, and no root component, and this path has N or more elements, then this path ends with the given path if the last N elements of each path, starting at the element farthest from the root, are equal.

If the given path has a root component then this path ends with the given path if the root component of this path ends with the root component of the given path, and the corresponding elements of both paths are equal. Whether or not the root component of this path ends with the root component of the given path is file system specific. If this path does not have a root component and the given path has a root component then this path does not end with the given path.

If the given path is associated with a different FileSystem to this path then false is returned.

Parameters
other Path: the given path

Returns
boolean true if this path ends with the given path; otherwise false

equals

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean equals (Object other)

Tests this path for equality with the given object.

If the given object is not a Path, or is a Path associated with a different FileSystem, then this method returns false.

Whether or not two path are equal depends on the file system implementation. In some cases the paths are compared without regard to case, and others are case sensitive. This method does not access the file system and the file is not required to exist. Where required, the isSameFile method may be used to check if two paths locate the same file.

This method satisfies the general contract of the Object.equals method.

Parameters
other Object: the object to which this object is to be compared

Returns
boolean true if, and only if, the given object is a Path that is identical to this Path

getFileName

added in API level 26
public abstract Path getFileName ()

Returns the name of the file or directory denoted by this path as a Path object. The file name is the farthest element from the root in the directory hierarchy.

Returns
Path a path representing the name of the file or directory, or null if this path has zero elements

getFileSystem

added in API level 26
public abstract FileSystem getFileSystem ()

Returns the file system that created this object.

Returns
FileSystem the file system that created this object

getName

added in API level 26
public abstract Path getName (int index)

Returns a name element of this path as a Path object.

The index parameter is the index of the name element to return. The element that is closest to the root in the directory hierarchy has index 0. The element that is farthest from the root has index count-1.

Parameters
index int: the index of the element

Returns
Path the name element

Throws
IllegalArgumentException if index is negative, index is greater than or equal to the number of elements, or this path has zero name elements

getNameCount

added in API level 26
public abstract int getNameCount ()

Returns the number of name elements in the path.

Returns
int the number of elements in the path, or 0 if this path only represents a root component

getParent

added in API level 26
public abstract Path getParent ()

Returns the parent path, or null if this path does not have a parent.

The parent of this path object consists of this path's root component, if any, and each element in the path except for the farthest from the root in the directory hierarchy. This method does not access the file system; the path or its parent may not exist. Furthermore, this method does not eliminate special names such as "." and ".." that may be used in some implementations. On UNIX for example, the parent of "/a/b/c" is "/a/b", and the parent of "x/y/." is "x/y". This method may be used with the normalize method, to eliminate redundant names, for cases where shell-like navigation is required.

If this path has one or more elements, and no root component, then this method is equivalent to evaluating the expression:

 subpath(0, getNameCount()-1);
 

Returns
Path a path representing the path's parent

getRoot

added in API level 26
public abstract Path getRoot ()

Returns the root component of this path as a Path object, or null if this path does not have a root component.

Returns
Path a path representing the root component of this path, or null

hashCode

added in API level 26
public abstract int hashCode ()

Computes a hash code for this path.

The hash code is based upon the components of the path, and satisfies the general contract of the Object.hashCode method.

Returns
int the hash-code value for this path

isAbsolute

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean isAbsolute ()

Tells whether or not this path is absolute.

An absolute path is complete in that it doesn't need to be combined with other path information in order to locate a file.

Returns
boolean true if, and only if, this path is absolute

iterator

added in API level 26
public abstract Iterator<Path> iterator ()

Returns an iterator over the name elements of this path.

The first element returned by the iterator represents the name element that is closest to the root in the directory hierarchy, the second element is the next closest, and so on. The last element returned is the name of the file or directory denoted by this path. The root component, if present, is not returned by the iterator.

Returns
Iterator<Path> an iterator over the name elements of this path.

normalize

added in API level 26
public abstract Path normalize ()

Returns a path that is this path with redundant name elements eliminated.

The precise definition of this method is implementation dependent but in general it derives from this path, a path that does not contain redundant name elements. In many file systems, the "." and ".." are special names used to indicate the current directory and parent directory. In such file systems all occurrences of "." are considered redundant. If a ".." is preceded by a non-".." name then both names are considered redundant (the process to identify such names is repeated until it is no longer applicable).

This method does not access the file system; the path may not locate a file that exists. Eliminating ".." and a preceding name from a path may result in the path that locates a different file than the original path. This can arise when the preceding name is a symbolic link.

Returns
Path the resulting path or this path if it does not contain redundant name elements; an empty path is returned if this path does have a root component and all name elements are redundant

register

added in API level 26
public abstract WatchKey register (WatchService watcher, 
                Kind...<?> events)

Registers the file located by this path with a watch service.

An invocation of this method behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation

     watchable.register(watcher, events, new WatchEvent.Modifier[0]);
 

Usage Example: Suppose we wish to register a directory for entry create, delete, and modify events:

     Path dir = ...
     WatchService watcher = ...

     WatchKey key = dir.register(watcher, ENTRY_CREATE, ENTRY_DELETE, ENTRY_MODIFY);
 

Parameters
watcher WatchService: The watch service to which this object is to be registered

events Kind: The events for which this object should be registered

Returns
WatchKey A key representing the registration of this object with the given watch service

Throws
UnsupportedOperationException If unsupported events are specified
IllegalArgumentException If an invalid combination of events is specified
ClosedWatchServiceException If the watch service is closed
NotDirectoryException If the file is registered to watch the entries in a directory and the file is not a directory (optional specific exception)
IOException If an I/O error occurs
SecurityException In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is installed, the checkRead method is invoked to check read access to the file.

register

added in API level 26
public abstract WatchKey register (WatchService watcher, 
                Kind[]<?> events, 
                Modifier... modifiers)

Registers the file located by this path with a watch service.

In this release, this path locates a directory that exists. The directory is registered with the watch service so that entries in the directory can be watched. The events parameter is the events to register and may contain the following events:

The context for these events is the relative path between the directory located by this path, and the path that locates the directory entry that is created, deleted, or modified.

The set of events may include additional implementation specific event that are not defined by the enum StandardWatchEventKinds

The modifiers parameter specifies modifiers that qualify how the directory is registered. This release does not define any standard modifiers. It may contain implementation specific modifiers.

Where a file is registered with a watch service by means of a symbolic link then it is implementation specific if the watch continues to depend on the existence of the symbolic link after it is registered.

Parameters
watcher WatchService: the watch service to which this object is to be registered

events Kind: the events for which this object should be registered

modifiers Modifier: the modifiers, if any, that modify how the object is registered

Returns
WatchKey a key representing the registration of this object with the given watch service

Throws
UnsupportedOperationException if unsupported events or modifiers are specified
IllegalArgumentException if an invalid combination of events or modifiers is specified
ClosedWatchServiceException if the watch service is closed
NotDirectoryException if the file is registered to watch the entries in a directory and the file is not a directory (optional specific exception)
IOException if an I/O error occurs
SecurityException In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is installed, the checkRead method is invoked to check read access to the file.

relativize

added in API level 26
public abstract Path relativize (Path other)

Constructs a relative path between this path and a given path.

Relativization is the inverse of resolution. This method attempts to construct a relative path that when resolved against this path, yields a path that locates the same file as the given path. For example, on UNIX, if this path is "/a/b" and the given path is "/a/b/c/d" then the resulting relative path would be "c/d". Where this path and the given path do not have a root component, then a relative path can be constructed. A relative path cannot be constructed if only one of the paths have a root component. Where both paths have a root component then it is implementation dependent if a relative path can be constructed. If this path and the given path are equal then an empty path is returned.

For any two normalized paths p and q, where q does not have a root component,

p.relativize(p.resolve(q)).equals(q)

When symbolic links are supported, then whether the resulting path, when resolved against this path, yields a path that can be used to locate the same file as other is implementation dependent. For example, if this path is "/a/b" and the given path is "/a/x" then the resulting relative path may be "../x". If "b" is a symbolic link then is implementation dependent if "a/b/../x" would locate the same file as "/a/x".

Parameters
other Path: the path to relativize against this path

Returns
Path the resulting relative path, or an empty path if both paths are equal

Throws
IllegalArgumentException if other is not a Path that can be relativized against this path

resolve

added in API level 26
public abstract Path resolve (Path other)

Resolve the given path against this path.

If the other parameter is an absolute path then this method trivially returns other. If other is an empty path then this method trivially returns this path. Otherwise this method considers this path to be a directory and resolves the given path against this path. In the simplest case, the given path does not have a root component, in which case this method joins the given path to this path and returns a resulting path that ends with the given path. Where the given path has a root component then resolution is highly implementation dependent and therefore unspecified.

Parameters
other Path: the path to resolve against this path

Returns
Path the resulting path

See also:

resolve

added in API level 26
public abstract Path resolve (String other)

Converts a given path string to a Path and resolves it against this Path in exactly the manner specified by the resolve method. For example, suppose that the name separator is "/" and a path represents "foo/bar", then invoking this method with the path string "gus" will result in the Path "foo/bar/gus".

Parameters
other String: the path string to resolve against this path

Returns
Path the resulting path

Throws
InvalidPathException if the path string cannot be converted to a Path.

resolveSibling

added in API level 26
public abstract Path resolveSibling (String other)

Converts a given path string to a Path and resolves it against this path's parent path in exactly the manner specified by the resolveSibling method.

Parameters
other String: the path string to resolve against this path's parent

Returns
Path the resulting path

Throws
InvalidPathException if the path string cannot be converted to a Path.

resolveSibling

added in API level 26
public abstract Path resolveSibling (Path other)

Resolves the given path against this path's parent path. This is useful where a file name needs to be replaced with another file name. For example, suppose that the name separator is "/" and a path represents "dir1/dir2/foo", then invoking this method with the Path "bar" will result in the Path "dir1/dir2/bar". If this path does not have a parent path, or other is absolute, then this method returns other. If other is an empty path then this method returns this path's parent, or where this path doesn't have a parent, the empty path.

Parameters
other Path: the path to resolve against this path's parent

Returns
Path the resulting path

See also:

startsWith

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean startsWith (Path other)

Tests if this path starts with the given path.

This path starts with the given path if this path's root component starts with the root component of the given path, and this path starts with the same name elements as the given path. If the given path has more name elements than this path then false is returned.

Whether or not the root component of this path starts with the root component of the given path is file system specific. If this path does not have a root component and the given path has a root component then this path does not start with the given path.

If the given path is associated with a different FileSystem to this path then false is returned.

Parameters
other Path: the given path

Returns
boolean true if this path starts with the given path; otherwise false

startsWith

added in API level 26
public abstract boolean startsWith (String other)

Tests if this path starts with a Path, constructed by converting the given path string, in exactly the manner specified by the startsWith(Path) method. On UNIX for example, the path "foo/bar" starts with "foo" and "foo/bar". It does not start with "f" or "fo".

Parameters
other String: the given path string

Returns
boolean true if this path starts with the given path; otherwise false

Throws
InvalidPathException If the path string cannot be converted to a Path.

subpath

added in API level 26
public abstract Path subpath (int beginIndex, 
                int endIndex)

Returns a relative Path that is a subsequence of the name elements of this path.

The beginIndex and endIndex parameters specify the subsequence of name elements. The name that is closest to the root in the directory hierarchy has index 0. The name that is farthest from the root has index count-1. The returned Path object has the name elements that begin at beginIndex and extend to the element at index endIndex-1.

Parameters
beginIndex int: the index of the first element, inclusive

endIndex int: the index of the last element, exclusive

Returns
Path a new Path object that is a subsequence of the name elements in this Path

Throws
IllegalArgumentException if beginIndex is negative, or greater than or equal to the number of elements. If endIndex is less than or equal to beginIndex, or larger than the number of elements.

toAbsolutePath

added in API level 26
public abstract Path toAbsolutePath ()

Returns a Path object representing the absolute path of this path.

If this path is already absolute then this method simply returns this path. Otherwise, this method resolves the path in an implementation dependent manner, typically by resolving the path against a file system default directory. Depending on the implementation, this method may throw an I/O error if the file system is not accessible.

Returns
Path a Path object representing the absolute path

Throws
IOError if an I/O error occurs
SecurityException In the case of the default provider, a security manager is installed, and this path is not absolute, then the security manager's checkPropertyAccess method is invoked to check access to the system property user.dir

toFile

added in API level 26
public abstract File toFile ()

Returns a File object representing this path. Where this Path is associated with the default provider, then this method is equivalent to returning a File object constructed with the String representation of this path.

If this path was created by invoking the File toPath method then there is no guarantee that the File object returned by this method is equal to the original File.

Returns
File a File object representing this path

Throws
UnsupportedOperationException if this Path is not associated with the default provider

toRealPath

added in API level 26
public abstract Path toRealPath (LinkOption... options)

Returns the real path of an existing file.

The precise definition of this method is implementation dependent but in general it derives from this path, an absolute path that locates the same file as this path, but with name elements that represent the actual name of the directories and the file. For example, where filename comparisons on a file system are case insensitive then the name elements represent the names in their actual case. Additionally, the resulting path has redundant name elements removed.

If this path is relative then its absolute path is first obtained, as if by invoking the toAbsolutePath method.

The options array may be used to indicate how symbolic links are handled. By default, symbolic links are resolved to their final target. If the option NOFOLLOW_LINKS is present then this method does not resolve symbolic links. Some implementations allow special names such as ".." to refer to the parent directory. When deriving the real path, and a ".." (or equivalent) is preceded by a non-".." name then an implementation will typically cause both names to be removed. When not resolving symbolic links and the preceding name is a symbolic link then the names are only removed if it guaranteed that the resulting path will locate the same file as this path.

Parameters
options LinkOption: options indicating how symbolic links are handled

Returns
Path an absolute path represent the real path of the file located by this object

Throws
IOException if the file does not exist or an I/O error occurs
SecurityException In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is installed, its checkRead method is invoked to check read access to the file, and where this path is not absolute, its checkPropertyAccess method is invoked to check access to the system property user.dir

toString

added in API level 26
public abstract String toString ()

Returns the string representation of this path.

If this path was created by converting a path string using the getPath method then the path string returned by this method may differ from the original String used to create the path.

The returned path string uses the default name separator to separate names in the path.

Returns
String the string representation of this path

toUri

added in API level 26
public abstract URI toUri ()

Returns a URI to represent this path.

This method constructs an absolute URI with a scheme equal to the URI scheme that identifies the provider. The exact form of the scheme specific part is highly provider dependent.

In the case of the default provider, the URI is hierarchical with a path component that is absolute. The query and fragment components are undefined. Whether the authority component is defined or not is implementation dependent. There is no guarantee that the URI may be used to construct a java.io.File. In particular, if this path represents a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path, then the UNC server name may be encoded in the authority component of the resulting URI. In the case of the default provider, and the file exists, and it can be determined that the file is a directory, then the resulting URI will end with a slash.

The default provider provides a similar round-trip guarantee to the File class. For a given Path p it is guaranteed that

Paths.get(p.toUri()).equals(p .toAbsolutePath())
so long as the original Path, the URI, and the new Path are all created in (possibly different invocations of) the same Java virtual machine. Whether other providers make any guarantees is provider specific and therefore unspecified.

When a file system is constructed to access the contents of a file as a file system then it is highly implementation specific if the returned URI represents the given path in the file system or it represents a compound URI that encodes the URI of the enclosing file system. A format for compound URIs is not defined in this release; such a scheme may be added in a future release.

Returns
URI the URI representing this path

Throws
IOError if an I/O error occurs obtaining the absolute path, or where a file system is constructed to access the contents of a file as a file system, and the URI of the enclosing file system cannot be obtained
SecurityException In the case of the default provider, and a security manager is installed, the toAbsolutePath method throws a security exception.