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ResourceBundle.Control

public static class ResourceBundle.Control
extends Object

java.lang.Object
   ↳ java.util.ResourceBundle.Control


ResourceBundle.Control defines a set of callback methods that are invoked by the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory methods during the bundle loading process. In other words, a ResourceBundle.Control collaborates with the factory methods for loading resource bundles. The default implementation of the callback methods provides the information necessary for the factory methods to perform the default behavior.

In addition to the callback methods, the toBundleName and toResourceName methods are defined primarily for convenience in implementing the callback methods. However, the toBundleName method could be overridden to provide different conventions in the organization and packaging of localized resources. The toResourceName method is final to avoid use of wrong resource and class name separators.

Two factory methods, getControl(List) and getNoFallbackControl(List), provide ResourceBundle.Control instances that implement common variations of the default bundle loading process.

The formats returned by the getFormats method and candidate locales returned by the getCandidateLocales method must be consistent in all ResourceBundle.getBundle invocations for the same base bundle. Otherwise, the ResourceBundle.getBundle methods may return unintended bundles. For example, if only "java.class" is returned by the getFormats method for the first call to ResourceBundle.getBundle and only "java.properties" for the second call, then the second call will return the class-based one that has been cached during the first call.

A ResourceBundle.Control instance must be thread-safe if it's simultaneously used by multiple threads. ResourceBundle.getBundle does not synchronize to call the ResourceBundle.Control methods. The default implementations of the methods are thread-safe.

Applications can specify ResourceBundle.Control instances returned by the getControl factory methods or created from a subclass of ResourceBundle.Control to customize the bundle loading process. The following are examples of changing the default bundle loading process.

Example 1

The following code lets ResourceBundle.getBundle look up only properties-based resources.

 import java.util.*;
 import static java.util.ResourceBundle.Control.*;
 ...
 ResourceBundle bundle =
   ResourceBundle.getBundle("MyResources", new Locale("fr", "CH"),
                            ResourceBundle.Control.getControl(FORMAT_PROPERTIES));
 
Given the resource bundles in the example in the ResourceBundle.getBundle description, this ResourceBundle.getBundle call loads MyResources_fr_CH.properties whose parent is MyResources_fr.properties whose parent is MyResources.properties. (MyResources_fr_CH.properties is not hidden, but MyResources_fr_CH.class is.)

Example 2

The following is an example of loading XML-based bundles using Properties.loadFromXML.

 ResourceBundle rb = ResourceBundle.getBundle("Messages",
     new ResourceBundle.Control() {
         public List<String> getFormats(String baseName) {
             if (baseName == null)
                 throw new NullPointerException();
             return Arrays.asList("xml");
         }
         public ResourceBundle newBundle(String baseName,
                                         Locale locale,
                                         String format,
                                         ClassLoader loader,
                                         boolean reload)
                          throws IllegalAccessException,
                                 InstantiationException,
                                 IOException {
             if (baseName == null || locale == null
                   || format == null || loader == null)
                 throw new NullPointerException();
             ResourceBundle bundle = null;
             if (format.equals("xml")) {
                 String bundleName = toBundleName(baseName, locale);
                 String resourceName = toResourceName(bundleName, format);
                 InputStream stream = null;
                 if (reload) {
                     URL url = loader.getResource(resourceName);
                     if (url != null) {
                         URLConnection connection = url.openConnection();
                         if (connection != null) {
                             // Disable caches to get fresh data for
                             // reloading.
                             connection.setUseCaches(false);
                             stream = connection.getInputStream();
                         }
                     }
                 } else {
                     stream = loader.getResourceAsStream(resourceName);
                 }
                 if (stream != null) {
                     BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(stream);
                     bundle = new XMLResourceBundle(bis);
                     bis.close();
                 }
             }
             return bundle;
         }
     });

 ...

 private static class XMLResourceBundle extends ResourceBundle {
     private Properties props;
     XMLResourceBundle(InputStream stream) throws IOException {
         props = new Properties();
         props.loadFromXML(stream);
     }
     protected Object handleGetObject(String key) {
         return props.getProperty(key);
     }
     public Enumeration<String> getKeys() {
         ...
     }
 }
 

Summary

Constants

long TTL_DONT_CACHE

The time-to-live constant for not caching loaded resource bundle instances.

long TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL

The time-to-live constant for disabling the expiration control for loaded resource bundle instances in the cache.

Fields

public static final List<String> FORMAT_CLASS

The class-only format List containing "java.class".

public static final List<String> FORMAT_DEFAULT

The default format List, which contains the strings "java.class" and "java.properties", in this order.

public static final List<String> FORMAT_PROPERTIES

The properties-only format List containing "java.properties".

Protected constructors

ResourceBundle.Control()

Sole constructor.

Public methods

List<Locale> getCandidateLocales(String baseName, Locale locale)

Returns a List of Locales as candidate locales for baseName and locale.

static final ResourceBundle.Control getControl(List<String> formats)

Returns a ResourceBundle.Control in which the getFormats method returns the specified formats.

Locale getFallbackLocale(String baseName, Locale locale)

Returns a Locale to be used as a fallback locale for further resource bundle searches by the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method.

List<String> getFormats(String baseName)

Returns a List of Strings containing formats to be used to load resource bundles for the given baseName.

static final ResourceBundle.Control getNoFallbackControl(List<String> formats)

Returns a ResourceBundle.Control in which the getFormats method returns the specified formats and the getFallbackLocale method returns null.

long getTimeToLive(String baseName, Locale locale)

Returns the time-to-live (TTL) value for resource bundles that are loaded under this ResourceBundle.Control.

boolean needsReload(String baseName, Locale locale, String format, ClassLoader loader, ResourceBundle bundle, long loadTime)

Determines if the expired bundle in the cache needs to be reloaded based on the loading time given by loadTime or some other criteria.

ResourceBundle newBundle(String baseName, Locale locale, String format, ClassLoader loader, boolean reload)

Instantiates a resource bundle for the given bundle name of the given format and locale, using the given class loader if necessary.

String toBundleName(String baseName, Locale locale)

Converts the given baseName and locale to the bundle name.

final String toResourceName(String bundleName, String suffix)

Converts the given bundleName to the form required by the ClassLoader.getResource method by replacing all occurrences of '.' in bundleName with '/' and appending a '.' and the given file suffix.

Inherited methods

From class java.lang.Object

Constants

TTL_DONT_CACHE

Added in API level 9
long TTL_DONT_CACHE

The time-to-live constant for not caching loaded resource bundle instances.

See also:

Constant Value: -1 (0xffffffffffffffff)

TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL

Added in API level 9
long TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL

The time-to-live constant for disabling the expiration control for loaded resource bundle instances in the cache.

See also:

Constant Value: -2 (0xfffffffffffffffe)

Fields

FORMAT_CLASS

Added in API level 9
List<String> FORMAT_CLASS

The class-only format List containing "java.class". This List is unmodifiable.

See also:

FORMAT_DEFAULT

Added in API level 9
List<String> FORMAT_DEFAULT

The default format List, which contains the strings "java.class" and "java.properties", in this order. This List is unmodifiable.

See also:

FORMAT_PROPERTIES

Added in API level 9
List<String> FORMAT_PROPERTIES

The properties-only format List containing "java.properties". This List is unmodifiable.

See also:

Protected constructors

ResourceBundle.Control

Added in API level 9
ResourceBundle.Control ()

Sole constructor. (For invocation by subclass constructors, typically implicit.)

Public methods

getCandidateLocales

Added in API level 9
List<Locale> getCandidateLocales (String baseName, 
                Locale locale)

Returns a List of Locales as candidate locales for baseName and locale. This method is called by the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method each time the factory method tries finding a resource bundle for a target Locale.

The sequence of the candidate locales also corresponds to the runtime resource lookup path (also known as the parent chain), if the corresponding resource bundles for the candidate locales exist and their parents are not defined by loaded resource bundles themselves. The last element of the list must be a root locale if it is desired to have the base bundle as the terminal of the parent chain.

If the given locale is equal to Locale.ROOT (the root locale), a List containing only the root Locale must be returned. In this case, the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method loads only the base bundle as the resulting resource bundle.

It is not a requirement to return an immutable (unmodifiable) List. However, the returned List must not be mutated after it has been returned by getCandidateLocales.

The default implementation returns a List containing Locales using the rules described below. In the description below, L, S, C and V respectively represent non-empty language, script, country, and variant. For example, [L, C] represents a Locale that has non-empty values only for language and country. The form L("xx") represents the (non-empty) language value is "xx". For all cases, Locales whose final component values are empty strings are omitted.

  1. For an input Locale with an empty script value, append candidate Locales by omitting the final component one by one as below:
    • [L, C, V]
    • [L, C]
    • [L]
    • Locale.ROOT
  2. For an input Locale with a non-empty script value, append candidate Locales by omitting the final component up to language, then append candidates generated from the Locale with country and variant restored:
    • [L, S, C, V]
    • [L, S, C]
    • [L, S]
    • [L, C, V]
    • [L, C]
    • [L]
    • Locale.ROOT
  3. For an input Locale with a variant value consisting of multiple subtags separated by underscore, generate candidate Locales by omitting the variant subtags one by one, then insert them after every occurence of Locales with the full variant value in the original list. For example, if the the variant consists of two subtags V1 and V2:
    • [L, S, C, V1, V2]
    • [L, S, C, V1]
    • [L, S, C]
    • [L, S]
    • [L, C, V1, V2]
    • [L, C, V1]
    • [L, C]
    • [L]
    • Locale.ROOT
  4. Special cases for Chinese. When an input Locale has the language "zh" (Chinese) and an empty script value, either "Hans" (Simplified) or "Hant" (Traditional) might be supplied, depending on the country. When the country is "CN" (China) or "SG" (Singapore), "Hans" is supplied. When the country is "HK" (Hong Kong SAR China), "MO" (Macau SAR China), or "TW" (Taiwan), "Hant" is supplied. For all other countries or when the country is empty, no script is supplied. For example, for Locale("zh", "CN") , the candidate list will be:
    • [L("zh"), S("Hans"), C("CN")]
    • [L("zh"), S("Hans")]
    • [L("zh"), C("CN")]
    • [L("zh")]
    • Locale.ROOT
    For Locale("zh", "TW"), the candidate list will be:
    • [L("zh"), S("Hant"), C("TW")]
    • [L("zh"), S("Hant")]
    • [L("zh"), C("TW")]
    • [L("zh")]
    • Locale.ROOT
  5. Special cases for Norwegian. Both Locale("no", "NO", "NY") and Locale("nn", "NO") represent Norwegian Nynorsk. When a locale's language is "nn", the standard candidate list is generated up to [L("nn")], and then the following candidates are added:
    • [L("no"), C("NO"), V("NY")]
    • [L("no"), C("NO")]
    • [L("no")]
    • Locale.ROOT
    If the locale is exactly Locale("no", "NO", "NY"), it is first converted to Locale("nn", "NO") and then the above procedure is followed.

    Also, Java treats the language "no" as a synonym of Norwegian Bokmål "nb". Except for the single case Locale("no", "NO", "NY") (handled above), when an input Locale has language "no" or "nb", candidate Locales with language code "no" and "nb" are interleaved, first using the requested language, then using its synonym. For example, Locale("nb", "NO", "POSIX") generates the following candidate list:

    • [L("nb"), C("NO"), V("POSIX")]
    • [L("no"), C("NO"), V("POSIX")]
    • [L("nb"), C("NO")]
    • [L("no"), C("NO")]
    • [L("nb")]
    • [L("no")]
    • Locale.ROOT
    Locale("no", "NO", "POSIX") would generate the same list except that locales with "no" would appear before the corresponding locales with "nb".

The default implementation uses an ArrayList that overriding implementations may modify before returning it to the caller. However, a subclass must not modify it after it has been returned by getCandidateLocales.

For example, if the given baseName is "Messages" and the given locale is Locale("ja", "", "XX"), then a List of Locales:

     Locale("ja", "", "XX")
     Locale("ja")
     Locale.ROOT
 
is returned. And if the resource bundles for the "ja" and "" Locales are found, then the runtime resource lookup path (parent chain) is:
     Messages_ja -> Messages
 

Parameters
baseName String: the base name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name
locale Locale: the locale for which a resource bundle is desired
Returns
List<Locale> a List of candidate Locales for the given locale
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName or locale is null

getControl

Added in API level 9
ResourceBundle.Control getControl (List<String> formats)

Returns a ResourceBundle.Control in which the getFormats method returns the specified formats. The formats must be equal to one of FORMAT_PROPERTIES, FORMAT_CLASS or FORMAT_DEFAULT. ResourceBundle.Control instances returned by this method are singletons and thread-safe.

Specifying FORMAT_DEFAULT is equivalent to instantiating the ResourceBundle.Control class, except that this method returns a singleton.

Parameters
formats List: the formats to be returned by the ResourceBundle.Control.getFormats method
Returns
ResourceBundle.Control a ResourceBundle.Control supporting the specified formats
Throws
NullPointerException if formats is null
IllegalArgumentException if formats is unknown

getFallbackLocale

Added in API level 9
Locale getFallbackLocale (String baseName, 
                Locale locale)

Returns a Locale to be used as a fallback locale for further resource bundle searches by the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method. This method is called from the factory method every time when no resulting resource bundle has been found for baseName and locale, where locale is either the parameter for ResourceBundle.getBundle or the previous fallback locale returned by this method.

The method returns null if no further fallback search is desired.

The default implementation returns the default Locale if the given locale isn't the default one. Otherwise, null is returned.

Parameters
baseName String: the base name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name for which ResourceBundle.getBundle has been unable to find any resource bundles (except for the base bundle)
locale Locale: the Locale for which ResourceBundle.getBundle has been unable to find any resource bundles (except for the base bundle)
Returns
Locale a Locale for the fallback search, or null if no further fallback search is desired.
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName or locale is null

getFormats

Added in API level 9
List<String> getFormats (String baseName)

Returns a List of Strings containing formats to be used to load resource bundles for the given baseName. The ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method tries to load resource bundles with formats in the order specified by the list. The list returned by this method must have at least one String. The predefined formats are "java.class" for class-based resource bundles and "java.properties" for properties-based ones. Strings starting with "java." are reserved for future extensions and must not be used by application-defined formats.

It is not a requirement to return an immutable (unmodifiable) List. However, the returned List must not be mutated after it has been returned by getFormats.

The default implementation returns FORMAT_DEFAULT so that the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method looks up first class-based resource bundles, then properties-based ones.

Parameters
baseName String: the base name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name
Returns
List<String> a List of Strings containing formats for loading resource bundles.
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName is null

See also:

getNoFallbackControl

Added in API level 9
ResourceBundle.Control getNoFallbackControl (List<String> formats)

Returns a ResourceBundle.Control in which the getFormats method returns the specified formats and the getFallbackLocale method returns null. The formats must be equal to one of FORMAT_PROPERTIES, FORMAT_CLASS or FORMAT_DEFAULT. ResourceBundle.Control instances returned by this method are singletons and thread-safe.

Parameters
formats List: the formats to be returned by the ResourceBundle.Control.getFormats method
Returns
ResourceBundle.Control a ResourceBundle.Control supporting the specified formats with no fallback Locale support
Throws
NullPointerException if formats is null
IllegalArgumentException if formats is unknown

getTimeToLive

Added in API level 9
long getTimeToLive (String baseName, 
                Locale locale)

Returns the time-to-live (TTL) value for resource bundles that are loaded under this ResourceBundle.Control. Positive time-to-live values specify the number of milliseconds a bundle can remain in the cache without being validated against the source data from which it was constructed. The value 0 indicates that a bundle must be validated each time it is retrieved from the cache. TTL_DONT_CACHE specifies that loaded resource bundles are not put in the cache. TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL specifies that loaded resource bundles are put in the cache with no expiration control.

The expiration affects only the bundle loading process by the ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method. That is, if the factory method finds a resource bundle in the cache that has expired, the factory method calls the needsReload method to determine whether the resource bundle needs to be reloaded. If needsReload returns true, the cached resource bundle instance is removed from the cache. Otherwise, the instance stays in the cache, updated with the new TTL value returned by this method.

All cached resource bundles are subject to removal from the cache due to memory constraints of the runtime environment. Returning a large positive value doesn't mean to lock loaded resource bundles in the cache.

The default implementation returns TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL.

Parameters
baseName String: the base name of the resource bundle for which the expiration value is specified.
locale Locale: the locale of the resource bundle for which the expiration value is specified.
Returns
long the time (0 or a positive millisecond offset from the cached time) to get loaded bundles expired in the cache, TTL_NO_EXPIRATION_CONTROL to disable the expiration control, or TTL_DONT_CACHE to disable caching.
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName or locale is null

needsReload

Added in API level 9
boolean needsReload (String baseName, 
                Locale locale, 
                String format, 
                ClassLoader loader, 
                ResourceBundle bundle, 
                long loadTime)

Determines if the expired bundle in the cache needs to be reloaded based on the loading time given by loadTime or some other criteria. The method returns true if reloading is required; false otherwise. loadTime is a millisecond offset since the Calendar Epoch. The calling ResourceBundle.getBundle factory method calls this method on the ResourceBundle.Control instance used for its current invocation, not on the instance used in the invocation that originally loaded the resource bundle.

The default implementation compares loadTime and the last modified time of the source data of the resource bundle. If it's determined that the source data has been modified since loadTime, true is returned. Otherwise, false is returned. This implementation assumes that the given format is the same string as its file suffix if it's not one of the default formats, "java.class" or "java.properties".

Parameters
baseName String: the base bundle name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name
locale Locale: the locale for which the resource bundle should be instantiated
format String: the resource bundle format to be loaded
loader ClassLoader: the ClassLoader to use to load the bundle
bundle ResourceBundle: the resource bundle instance that has been expired in the cache
loadTime long: the time when bundle was loaded and put in the cache
Returns
boolean true if the expired bundle needs to be reloaded; false otherwise.
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName, locale, format, loader, or bundle is null

newBundle

Added in API level 9
ResourceBundle newBundle (String baseName, 
                Locale locale, 
                String format, 
                ClassLoader loader, 
                boolean reload)

Instantiates a resource bundle for the given bundle name of the given format and locale, using the given class loader if necessary. This method returns null if there is no resource bundle available for the given parameters. If a resource bundle can't be instantiated due to an unexpected error, the error must be reported by throwing an Error or Exception rather than simply returning null.

If the reload flag is true, it indicates that this method is being called because the previously loaded resource bundle has expired.

The default implementation instantiates a ResourceBundle as follows.

Parameters
baseName String: the base bundle name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name
locale Locale: the locale for which the resource bundle should be instantiated
format String: the resource bundle format to be loaded
loader ClassLoader: the ClassLoader to use to load the bundle
reload boolean: the flag to indicate bundle reloading; true if reloading an expired resource bundle, false otherwise
Returns
ResourceBundle the resource bundle instance, or null if none could be found.
Throws
NullPointerException if bundleName, locale, format, or loader is null, or if null is returned by toBundleName
IllegalArgumentException if format is unknown, or if the resource found for the given parameters contains malformed data.
ClassCastException if the loaded class cannot be cast to ResourceBundle
IllegalAccessException if the class or its nullary constructor is not accessible.
InstantiationException if the instantiation of a class fails for some other reason.
ExceptionInInitializerError if the initialization provoked by this method fails.
SecurityException If a security manager is present and creation of new instances is denied. See newInstance() for details.
IOException if an error occurred when reading resources using any I/O operations

toBundleName

Added in API level 9
String toBundleName (String baseName, 
                Locale locale)

Converts the given baseName and locale to the bundle name. This method is called from the default implementation of the newBundle and needsReload methods.

This implementation returns the following value:

     baseName + "_" + language + "_" + script + "_" + country + "_" + variant
 
where language, script, country, and variant are the language, script, country, and variant values of locale, respectively. Final component values that are empty Strings are omitted along with the preceding '_'. When the script is empty, the script value is ommitted along with the preceding '_'. If all of the values are empty strings, then baseName is returned.

For example, if baseName is "baseName" and locale is Locale("ja", "", "XX"), then "baseName_ja_ _XX" is returned. If the given locale is Locale("en"), then "baseName_en" is returned.

Overriding this method allows applications to use different conventions in the organization and packaging of localized resources.

Parameters
baseName String: the base name of the resource bundle, a fully qualified class name
locale Locale: the locale for which a resource bundle should be loaded
Returns
String the bundle name for the resource bundle
Throws
NullPointerException if baseName or locale is null

toResourceName

Added in API level 9
String toResourceName (String bundleName, 
                String suffix)

Converts the given bundleName to the form required by the ClassLoader.getResource method by replacing all occurrences of '.' in bundleName with '/' and appending a '.' and the given file suffix. For example, if bundleName is "foo.bar.MyResources_ja_JP" and suffix is "properties", then "foo/bar/MyResources_ja_JP.properties" is returned.

Parameters
bundleName String: the bundle name
suffix String: the file type suffix
Returns
String the converted resource name
Throws
NullPointerException if bundleName or suffix is null
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