public
class
Arrays
extends Object
java.lang.Object  
↳  java.util.Arrays 
This class contains various methods for manipulating arrays (such as sorting and searching). This class also contains a static factory that allows arrays to be viewed as lists.
The methods in this class all throw a NullPointerException
,
if the specified array reference is null, except where noted.
The documentation for the methods contained in this class includes
briefs description of the implementations. Such descriptions should
be regarded as implementation notes, rather than parts of the
specification. Implementors should feel free to substitute other
algorithms, so long as the specification itself is adhered to. (For
example, the algorithm used by sort(Object[])
does not have to be
a MergeSort, but it does have to be stable.)
This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.
Public methods  

static
<T>
List<T>

asList(T... a)
Returns a fixedsize list backed by the specified array. 
static
int

binarySearch(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char key)
Searches a range of the specified array of chars for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(long[] a, long key)
Searches the specified array of longs for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float key)
Searches a range of the specified array of floats for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte key)
Searches a range of the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long key)
Searches a range of the specified array of longs for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int key)
Searches a range of the specified array of ints for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short key)
Searches a range of the specified array of shorts for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
<T>
int

binarySearch(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches a range of the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(byte[] a, byte key)
Searches the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(short[] a, short key)
Searches the specified array of shorts for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(Object[] a, Object key)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double key)
Searches a range of the specified array of doubles for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object key)
Searches a range of the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(char[] a, char key)
Searches the specified array of chars for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(int[] a, int key)
Searches the specified array of ints for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(double[] a, double key)
Searches the specified array of doubles for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
<T>
int

binarySearch(T[] a, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm. 
static
int

binarySearch(float[] a, float key)
Searches the specified array of floats for the specified value using the binary search algorithm. 
static
double[]

copyOf(double[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
float[]

copyOf(float[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
boolean[]

copyOf(boolean[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with false (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
int[]

copyOf(int[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
long[]

copyOf(long[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
short[]

copyOf(short[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
<T, U>
T[]

copyOf(U[] original, int newLength, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
<T>
T[]

copyOf(T[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
char[]

copyOf(char[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with null characters (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
byte[]

copyOf(byte[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. 
static
double[]

copyOfRange(double[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
<T>
T[]

copyOfRange(T[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
char[]

copyOfRange(char[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
float[]

copyOfRange(float[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
long[]

copyOfRange(long[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
int[]

copyOfRange(int[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
boolean[]

copyOfRange(boolean[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
<T, U>
T[]

copyOfRange(U[] original, int from, int to, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
short[]

copyOfRange(short[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
byte[]

copyOfRange(byte[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. 
static
boolean

deepEquals(Object[] a1, Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays are deeply equal to one another. 
static
int

deepHashCode(Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the "deep contents" of the specified array. 
static
String

deepToString(Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the "deep contents" of the specified array. 
static
boolean

equals(Object[] a, Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of Objects are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(double[] a, double[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of doubles are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(long[] a, long[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of longs are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(char[] a, char[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of chars are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(boolean[] a, boolean[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of booleans are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(int[] a, int[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of ints are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(float[] a, float[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of floats are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(short[] a, short[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of shorts are equal to one another. 
static
boolean

equals(byte[] a, byte[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of bytes are equal to one another. 
static
void

fill(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of floats. 
static
void

fill(float[] a, float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified array of floats. 
static
void

fill(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of bytes. 
static
void

fill(char[] a, char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified array of chars. 
static
void

fill(boolean[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of booleans. 
static
void

fill(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of chars. 
static
void

fill(Object[] a, Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified array of Objects. 
static
void

fill(double[] a, double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified array of doubles. 
static
void

fill(long[] a, long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified array of longs. 
static
void

fill(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of longs. 
static
void

fill(byte[] a, byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified array of bytes. 
static
void

fill(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of ints. 
static
void

fill(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of doubles. 
static
void

fill(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of shorts. 
static
void

fill(boolean[] a, boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified array of booleans. 
static
void

fill(short[] a, short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified array of shorts. 
static
void

fill(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified range of the specified array of Objects. 
static
void

fill(int[] a, int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified array of ints. 
static
int

hashCode(byte[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(boolean[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(char[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(long[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(int[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(float[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(short[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
int

hashCode(double[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. 
static
<T>
void

parallelPrefix(T[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, BinaryOperator<T> op)
Performs 
static
<T>
void

parallelPrefix(T[] array, BinaryOperator<T> op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place, using the supplied function. 
static
void

parallelPrefix(long[] array, LongBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place, using the supplied function. 
static
void

parallelPrefix(long[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, LongBinaryOperator op)
Performs 
static
void

parallelPrefix(int[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, IntBinaryOperator op)
Performs 
static
void

parallelPrefix(double[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, DoubleBinaryOperator op)
Performs 
static
void

parallelPrefix(double[] array, DoubleBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place, using the supplied function. 
static
void

parallelPrefix(int[] array, IntBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place, using the supplied function. 
static
void

parallelSetAll(double[] array, IntToDoubleFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
void

parallelSetAll(int[] array, IntUnaryOperator generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
void

parallelSetAll(long[] array, IntToLongFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
<T>
void

parallelSetAll(T[] array, IntFunction<? extends T> generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
<T>
void

parallelSort(T[] a, Comparator<? super T> cmp)
Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified comparator. 
static
void

parallelSort(long[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(short[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(double[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(char[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
<T extends Comparable<? super T>>
void

parallelSort(T[] a)
Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the natural ordering of its elements. 
static
void

parallelSort(float[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(byte[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(int[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

parallelSort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order. 
static
<T extends Comparable<? super T>>
void

parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the natural ordering of its elements. 
static
<T>
void

parallelSort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Comparator<? super T> cmp)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified comparator. 
static
<T>
void

setAll(T[] array, IntFunction<? extends T> generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
void

setAll(double[] array, IntToDoubleFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
void

setAll(long[] array, IntToLongFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
void

setAll(int[] array, IntUnaryOperator generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element. 
static
<T>
void

sort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified comparator. 
static
void

sort(int[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(double[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(short[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(long[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
<T>
void

sort(T[] a, Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified comparator. 
static
void

sort(byte[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the natural ordering of its elements. 
static
void

sort(char[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
void

sort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(Object[] a)
Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the natural ordering of its elements. 
static
void

sort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. 
static
void

sort(float[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order. 
static
Spliterator.OfLong

spliterator(long[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a 
static
Spliterator.OfLong

spliterator(long[] array)
Returns a 
static
Spliterator.OfDouble

spliterator(double[] array)
Returns a 
static
Spliterator.OfInt

spliterator(int[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a 
static
<T>
Spliterator<T>

spliterator(T[] array)
Returns a 
static
Spliterator.OfInt

spliterator(int[] array)
Returns a 
static
<T>
Spliterator<T>

spliterator(T[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a 
static
Spliterator.OfDouble

spliterator(double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a 
static
IntStream

stream(int[] array)
Returns a sequential 
static
LongStream

stream(long[] array)
Returns a sequential 
static
<T>
Stream<T>

stream(T[] array)
Returns a sequential 
static
DoubleStream

stream(double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential 
static
DoubleStream

stream(double[] array)
Returns a sequential 
static
IntStream

stream(int[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential 
static
<T>
Stream<T>

stream(T[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential 
static
LongStream

stream(long[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential 
static
String

toString(float[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(int[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(long[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(boolean[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(double[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(short[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(char[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
static
String

toString(byte[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. 
Inherited methods  

From
class
java.lang.Object

List<T> asList (T... a)
Returns a fixedsize list backed by the specified array. (Changes to
the returned list "write through" to the array.) This method acts
as bridge between arraybased and collectionbased APIs, in
combination with toArray()
. The returned list is
serializable and implements RandomAccess
.
This method also provides a convenient way to create a fixedsize list initialized to contain several elements:
List<String> stooges = Arrays.asList("Larry", "Moe", "Curly");
Parameters  

a 
T :
the array by which the list will be backed 
Returns  

List<T> 
a list view of the specified array 
int binarySearch (char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of chars for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted (as
by the sort(char[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
char :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (long[] a, long key)
Searches the specified array of longs for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted (as
by the sort(long[])
method) prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be searched 
key 
long :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of floats for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted
(as by the sort(float[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If
it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be
equivalent and equal.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
float :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted (as
by the sort(byte[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
byte :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of longs for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted (as
by the sort(long[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
long :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of ints for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted (as
by the sort(int[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
int :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of shorts for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted
(as by the sort(short[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call. If
it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
short :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches a range of
the specified array for the specified object using the binary
search algorithm.
The range must be sorted into ascending order
according to the specified comparator (as by the
sort(T[], int, int, Comparator)
method) prior to making this call.
If it is not sorted, the results are undefined.
If the range contains multiple elements equal to the specified object,
there is no guarantee which one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
T :
the value to be searched for 
c 
Comparator :
the comparator by which the array is ordered. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the range contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparator, or the search key is not comparable to the elements in the range using this comparator. 
IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (byte[] a, byte key)
Searches the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted (as
by the sort(byte[])
method) prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be searched 
key 
byte :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (short[] a, short key)
Searches the specified array of shorts for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted
(as by the sort(short[])
method) prior to making this call. If
it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be searched 
key 
short :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (Object[] a, Object key)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary
search algorithm. The array must be sorted into ascending order
according to the
natural ordering
of its elements (as by the
sort(Object[])
method) prior to making this call.
If it is not sorted, the results are undefined.
(If the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for
example, strings and integers), it cannot be sorted according
to the natural ordering of its elements, hence results are undefined.)
If the array contains multiple
elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be searched 
key 
Object :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array. 
int binarySearch (double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double key)
Searches a range of
the specified array of doubles for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm.
The range must be sorted
(as by the sort(double[], int, int)
method)
prior to making this call.
If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be
equivalent and equal.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
double :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object key)
Searches a range of
the specified array for the specified object using the binary
search algorithm.
The range must be sorted into ascending order
according to the
natural ordering
of its elements (as by the
sort(Object[], int, int)
method) prior to making this
call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined.
(If the range contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for
example, strings and integers), it cannot be sorted according
to the natural ordering of its elements, hence results are undefined.)
If the range contains multiple
elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be searched 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
searched 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searched 
key 
Object :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array within the specified range; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element in the range greater than the key, or toIndex if all elements in the range are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array within the specified range. 
IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
int binarySearch (char[] a, char key)
Searches the specified array of chars for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted (as
by the sort(char[])
method) prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be searched 
key 
char :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (int[] a, int key)
Searches the specified array of ints for the specified value using the
binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted (as
by the sort(int[])
method) prior to making this call. If it
is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be searched 
key 
int :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (double[] a, double key)
Searches the specified array of doubles for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted
(as by the sort(double[])
method) prior to making this call.
If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be
equivalent and equal.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be searched 
key 
double :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
int binarySearch (T[] a, T key, Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary
search algorithm. The array must be sorted into ascending order
according to the specified comparator (as by the
sort(T[], Comparator)
method) prior to making this call. If it is
not sorted, the results are undefined.
If the array contains multiple
elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which one
will be found.
Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be searched 
key 
T :
the value to be searched for 
c 
Comparator :
the comparator by which the array is ordered. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparator, or the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array using this comparator. 
int binarySearch (float[] a, float key)
Searches the specified array of floats for the specified value using
the binary search algorithm. The array must be sorted
(as by the sort(float[])
method) prior to making this call. If
it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the array contains
multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which
one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be
equivalent and equal.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be searched 
key 
float :
the value to be searched for 
Returns  

int 
index of the search key, if it is contained in the array; otherwise, ((insertion point)  1). The insertion point is defined as the point at which the key would be inserted into the array: the index of the first element greater than the key, or a.length if all elements in the array are less than the specified key. Note that this guarantees that the return value will be >= 0 if and only if the key is found. 
double[] copyOf (double[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain 0d. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
double :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

double[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
float[] copyOf (float[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain 0f. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
float :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

float[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
boolean[] copyOf (boolean[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with false (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain false. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
boolean :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

boolean[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with false elements to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
int[] copyOf (int[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain 0. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
int :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

int[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
long[] copyOf (long[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain 0L. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
long :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

long[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
short[] copyOf (short[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain (short)0. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
short :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

short[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
T[] copyOf (U[] original, int newLength, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain null. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array. The resulting array is of the class newType.
Parameters  

original 
U :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
newType 
Class :
the class of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

T[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with nulls to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
ArrayStoreException 
if an element copied from original is not of a runtime type that can be stored in an array of class newType 
T[] copyOf (T[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain null. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array. The resulting array is of exactly the same class as the original array.
Parameters  

original 
T :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

T[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with nulls to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
char[] copyOf (char[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with null characters (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain '\\u000'. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
char :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

char[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with null characters to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
byte[] copyOf (byte[] original, int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length. For all indices that are valid in both the original array and the copy, the two arrays will contain identical values. For any indices that are valid in the copy but not the original, the copy will contain (byte)0. Such indices will exist if and only if the specified length is greater than that of the original array.
Parameters  

original 
byte :
the array to be copied 
newLength 
int :
the length of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

byte[] 
a copy of the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the specified length 
Throws  

NegativeArraySizeException 
if newLength is negative 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
double[] copyOfRange (double[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case 0d is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
double :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

double[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
T[] copyOfRange (T[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case null is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
The resulting array is of exactly the same class as the original array.
Parameters  

original 
T :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

T[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with nulls to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
char[] copyOfRange (char[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case '\\u000' is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
char :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

char[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with null characters to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
float[] copyOfRange (float[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case 0f is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
float :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

float[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
long[] copyOfRange (long[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case 0L is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
long :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

long[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
int[] copyOfRange (int[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case 0 is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
int :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

int[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
boolean[] copyOfRange (boolean[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case false is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
boolean :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

boolean[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with false elements to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
T[] copyOfRange (U[] original, int from, int to, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case null is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from. The resulting array is of the class newType.
Parameters  

original 
U :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
newType 
Class :
the class of the copy to be returned 
Returns  

T[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with nulls to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
ArrayStoreException 
if an element copied from original is not of a runtime type that can be stored in an array of class newType. 
short[] copyOfRange (short[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case (short)0 is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
short :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

short[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
byte[] copyOfRange (byte[] original, int from, int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array. The initial index of the range (from) must lie between zero and original.length, inclusive. The value at original[from] is placed into the initial element of the copy (unless from == original.length or from == to). Values from subsequent elements in the original array are placed into subsequent elements in the copy. The final index of the range (to), which must be greater than or equal to from, may be greater than original.length, in which case (byte)0 is placed in all elements of the copy whose index is greater than or equal to original.length  from. The length of the returned array will be to  from.
Parameters  

original 
byte :
the array from which a range is to be copied 
from 
int :
the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusive 
to 
int :
the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive.
(This index may lie outside the array.) 
Returns  

byte[] 
a new array containing the specified range from the original array, truncated or padded with zeros to obtain the required length 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if from < 0
or from > original.length 
IllegalArgumentException 
if from > to 
NullPointerException 
if original is null 
boolean deepEquals (Object[] a1, Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays are deeply
equal to one another. Unlike the equals(Object[], Object[])
method, this method is appropriate for use with nested arrays of
arbitrary depth.
Two array references are considered deeply equal if both are null, or if they refer to arrays that contain the same number of elements and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are deeply equal.
Two possibly null elements e1 and e2 are deeply equal if any of the following conditions hold:
If either of the specified arrays contain themselves as elements either directly or indirectly through one or more levels of arrays, the behavior of this method is undefined.
Parameters  

a1 
Object :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
Object :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
int deepHashCode (Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the "deep contents" of the specified array. If the array contains other arrays as elements, the hash code is based on their contents and so on, ad infinitum. It is therefore unacceptable to invoke this method on an array that contains itself as an element, either directly or indirectly through one or more levels of arrays. The behavior of such an invocation is undefined.
For any two arrays a and b such that Arrays.deepEquals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.deepHashCode(a) == Arrays.deepHashCode(b).
The computation of the value returned by this method is similar to
that of the value returned by hashCode()
on a list
containing the same elements as a in the same order, with one
difference: If an element e of a is itself an array,
its hash code is computed not by calling e.hashCode(), but as
by calling the appropriate overloading of Arrays.hashCode(e)
if e is an array of a primitive type, or as by calling
Arrays.deepHashCode(e) recursively if e is an array
of a reference type. If a is null, this method
returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array whose deepcontentbased hash code to compute 
Returns  

int 
a deepcontentbased hash code for a 
See also:
String deepToString (Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the "deep contents" of the specified array. If the array contains other arrays as elements, the string representation contains their contents and so on. This method is designed for converting multidimensional arrays to strings.
The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(Object), unless they are themselves arrays.
If an element e is an array of a primitive type, it is converted to a string as by invoking the appropriate overloading of Arrays.toString(e). If an element e is an array of a reference type, it is converted to a string as by invoking this method recursively.
To avoid infinite recursion, if the specified array contains itself as an element, or contains an indirect reference to itself through one or more levels of arrays, the selfreference is converted to the string "[...]". For example, an array containing only a reference to itself would be rendered as "[[...]]".
This method returns "null" if the specified array is null.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
See also:
boolean equals (Object[] a, Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of Objects are equal to one another. The two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. Two objects e1 and e2 are considered equal if (e1==null ? e2==null : e1.equals(e2)). In other words, the two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
Object :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (double[] a, double[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of doubles are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Two doubles d1 and d2 are considered equal if:
new Double(d1).equals(new Double(d2))(Unlike the == operator, this method considers NaN equals to itself, and 0.0d unequal to 0.0d.)
Parameters  

a 
double :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
double :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
See also:
boolean equals (long[] a, long[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of longs are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
long :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
long :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (char[] a, char[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of chars are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
char :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
char :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (boolean[] a, boolean[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of booleans are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
boolean :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
boolean :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (int[] a, int[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of ints are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
int :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
int :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (float[] a, float[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of floats are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Two floats f1 and f2 are considered equal if:
new Float(f1).equals(new Float(f2))(Unlike the == operator, this method considers NaN equals to itself, and 0.0f unequal to 0.0f.)
Parameters  

a 
float :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
float :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
See also:
boolean equals (short[] a, short[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of shorts are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
short :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
short :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
boolean equals (byte[] a, byte[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of bytes are equal to one another. Two arrays are considered equal if both arrays contain the same number of elements, and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are equal. In other words, two arrays are equal if they contain the same elements in the same order. Also, two array references are considered equal if both are null.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
one array to be tested for equality 
a2 
byte :
the other array to be tested for equality 
Returns  

boolean 
true if the two arrays are equal 
void fill (float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of floats. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
float :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (float[] a, float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified array of floats.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be filled 
val 
float :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of bytes. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
byte :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (char[] a, char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified array of chars.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be filled 
val 
char :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (boolean[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of booleans. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
boolean :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
boolean :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of chars. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
char :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (Object[] a, Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified array of Objects.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be filled 
val 
Object :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

ArrayStoreException 
if the specified value is not of a runtime type that can be stored in the specified array 
void fill (double[] a, double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified array of doubles.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be filled 
val 
double :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (long[] a, long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified array of longs.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be filled 
val 
long :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of longs. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
long :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (byte[] a, byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified array of bytes.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be filled 
val 
byte :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of ints. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
int :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of doubles. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
double :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of shorts. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
short :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void fill (boolean[] a, boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified array of booleans.
Parameters  

a 
boolean :
the array to be filled 
val 
boolean :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (short[] a, short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified array of shorts.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be filled 
val 
short :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

void fill (Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified range of the specified array of Objects. The range to be filled extends from index fromIndex, inclusive, to index toIndex, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex, the range to be filled is empty.)
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be filled 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be
filled with the specified value 
val 
Object :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
ArrayStoreException 
if the specified value is not of a runtime type that can be stored in the specified array 
void fill (int[] a, int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified array of ints.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be filled 
val 
int :
the value to be stored in all elements of the array

int hashCode (byte[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two byte arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Byte
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (boolean[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two boolean arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Boolean
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
boolean :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (char[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two char arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Character
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (long[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two long arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Long
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (int[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two nonnull int arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Integer
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (float[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two float arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Float
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (short[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two short arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Short
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
int hashCode (Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. If the array contains other arrays as elements, the hash code is based on their identities rather than their contents. It is therefore acceptable to invoke this method on an array that contains itself as an element, either directly or indirectly through one or more levels of arrays.
For any two arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is equal to the value that would be returned by Arrays.asList(a).hashCode(), unless a is null, in which case 0 is returned.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array whose contentbased hash code to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
See also:
int hashCode (double[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array. For any two double arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be
obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Double
instances representing the elements of a in the same order.
If a is null, this method returns 0.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array whose hash value to compute 
Returns  

int 
a contentbased hash code for a 
void parallelPrefix (T[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, BinaryOperator<T> op)
Performs parallelPrefix(Object[], BinaryOperator)
for the given subrange of the array.
Parameters  

array 
T :
the array 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive 
op 
BinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > array.length 
NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (T[] array, BinaryOperator<T> op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place,
using the supplied function. For example if the array initially
holds [2, 1, 0, 3]
and the operation performs addition,
then upon return the array holds [2, 3, 3, 6]
.
Parallel prefix computation is usually more efficient than
sequential loops for large arrays.
Parameters  

array 
T :
the array, which is modified inplace by this method 
op 
BinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (long[] array, LongBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place,
using the supplied function. For example if the array initially
holds [2, 1, 0, 3]
and the operation performs addition,
then upon return the array holds [2, 3, 3, 6]
.
Parallel prefix computation is usually more efficient than
sequential loops for large arrays.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array, which is modified inplace by this method 
op 
LongBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (long[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, LongBinaryOperator op)
Performs parallelPrefix(long[], LongBinaryOperator)
for the given subrange of the array.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive 
op 
LongBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > array.length 
NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (int[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, IntBinaryOperator op)
Performs parallelPrefix(int[], IntBinaryOperator)
for the given subrange of the array.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive 
op 
IntBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > array.length 
NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (double[] array, int fromIndex, int toIndex, DoubleBinaryOperator op)
Performs parallelPrefix(double[], DoubleBinaryOperator)
for the given subrange of the array.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive 
op 
DoubleBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > array.length 
NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (double[] array, DoubleBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place,
using the supplied function. For example if the array initially
holds [2.0, 1.0, 0.0, 3.0]
and the operation performs addition,
then upon return the array holds [2.0, 3.0, 3.0, 6.0]
.
Parallel prefix computation is usually more efficient than
sequential loops for large arrays.
Because floatingpoint operations may not be strictly associative, the returned result may not be identical to the value that would be obtained if the operation was performed sequentially.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array, which is modified inplace by this method 
op 
DoubleBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree function to perform the cumulation 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelPrefix (int[] array, IntBinaryOperator op)
Cumulates, in parallel, each element of the given array in place,
using the supplied function. For example if the array initially
holds [2, 1, 0, 3]
and the operation performs addition,
then upon return the array holds [2, 3, 3, 6]
.
Parallel prefix computation is usually more efficient than
sequential loops for large arrays.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array, which is modified inplace by this method 
op 
IntBinaryOperator :
a sideeffectfree, associative function to perform the
cumulation 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the specified array or function is null 
void parallelSetAll (double[] array, IntToDoubleFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, an unchecked exception
is thrown from parallelSetAll
and the array is left in an
indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
double :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntToDoubleFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void parallelSetAll (int[] array, IntUnaryOperator generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, an unchecked exception
is thrown from parallelSetAll
and the array is left in an
indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
int :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntUnaryOperator :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void parallelSetAll (long[] array, IntToLongFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, an unchecked exception
is thrown from parallelSetAll
and the array is left in an
indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
long :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntToLongFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void parallelSetAll (T[] array, IntFunction<? extends T> generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, in parallel, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, an unchecked exception
is thrown from parallelSetAll
and the array is left in an
indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
T :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void parallelSort (T[] a, Comparator<? super T> cmp)
Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by
the specified comparator. All elements in the array must be
mutually comparable by the specified comparator (that is,
c.compare(e1, e2)
must not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
cmp 
Comparator :
the comparator to determine the order of the array. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparator 
IllegalArgumentException 
(optional) if the comparator is
found to violate the Comparator contract 
void parallelSort (long[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (short[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (double[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double
values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0d
is treated as less than value
0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (char[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double
values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0d
is treated as less than value
0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (T[] a)
Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according
to the natural ordering of its elements.
All elements in the array must implement the Comparable
interface. Furthermore, all elements in the array must be
mutually comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must
not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers) 
IllegalArgumentException 
(optional) if the natural
ordering of the array elements is found to violate the
Comparable contract 
void parallelSort (float[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float
values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than value
0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (byte[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (int[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a
working space no greater than the size of the original array. The
ForkJoin common pool
is used to
execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be sorted 
void parallelSort (long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float
values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than value
0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending numerical order.
The range to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
,
inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If
fromIndex == toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length 
void parallelSort (T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into
ascending order, according to the
natural ordering of its
elements. The range to be sorted extends from index
fromIndex
, inclusive, to index toIndex
, exclusive.
(If fromIndex==toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.) All
elements in this range must implement the Comparable
interface. Furthermore, all elements in this range must be mutually
comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must not throw a
ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and
e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex or
(optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
found to violate the Comparable contract 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or
toIndex > a.length 
ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers). 
void parallelSort (T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Comparator<? super T> cmp)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according
to the order induced by the specified comparator. The range to be
sorted extends from index fromIndex
, inclusive, to index
toIndex
, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex
, the
range to be sorted is empty.) All elements in the range must be
mutually comparable by the specified comparator (that is,
c.compare(e1, e2)
must not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the range).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Arrays.sort
method. If the length of the specified array is less than the minimum
granularity, then it is sorted using the appropriate Arrays.sort
method. The algorithm requires a working
space no greater than the size of the specified range of the original
array. The ForkJoin common pool
is
used to execute any parallel tasks.Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted 
cmp 
Comparator :
the comparator to determine the order of the array. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex or
(optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
found to violate the Comparable contract 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or
toIndex > a.length 
ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers). 
void setAll (T[] array, IntFunction<? extends T> generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, it is relayed to the caller and the array is left in an indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
T :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void setAll (double[] array, IntToDoubleFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, it is relayed to the caller and the array is left in an indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
double :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntToDoubleFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void setAll (long[] array, IntToLongFunction generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, it is relayed to the caller and the array is left in an indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
long :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntToLongFunction :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void setAll (int[] array, IntUnaryOperator generator)
Set all elements of the specified array, using the provided generator function to compute each element.
If the generator function throws an exception, it is relayed to the caller and the array is left in an indeterminate state.
Parameters  

array 
int :
array to be initialized 
generator 
IntUnaryOperator :
a function accepting an index and producing the desired
value for that position 
Throws  

NullPointerException 
if the generator is null 
void sort (T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according
to the order induced by the specified comparator. The range to be
sorted extends from index fromIndex
, inclusive, to index
toIndex
, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex
, the
range to be sorted is empty.) All elements in the range must be
mutually comparable by the specified comparator (that is,
c.compare(e1, e2)
must not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the range).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted 
c 
Comparator :
the comparator to determine the order of the array. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparator. 
IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex or
(optional) if the comparator is found to violate the
Comparator contract 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or
toIndex > a.length

void sort (int[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be sorted

void sort (long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (double[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double
values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0d
is treated as less than value
0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be sorted

void sort (short[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be sorted

void sort (char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (long[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array to be sorted

void sort (float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float
values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than value
0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (T[] a, Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by
the specified comparator. All elements in the array must be
mutually comparable by the specified comparator (that is,
c.compare(e1, e2)
must not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
Parameters  

a 
T :
the array to be sorted 
c 
Comparator :
the comparator to determine the order of the array. A
null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used. 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparator 
IllegalArgumentException 
(optional) if the comparator is
found to violate the Comparator contract

void sort (byte[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be sorted

void sort (Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into
ascending order, according to the
natural ordering of its
elements. The range to be sorted extends from index
fromIndex
, inclusive, to index toIndex
, exclusive.
(If fromIndex==toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.) All
elements in this range must implement the Comparable
interface. Furthermore, all elements in this range must be mutually
comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must not throw a
ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and
e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element (inclusive) to be
sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex or
(optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is
found to violate the Comparable contract 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or
toIndex > a.length 
ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers). 
void sort (char[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array to be sorted

void sort (double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double
values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0d
is treated as less than value
0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (Object[] a)
Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according
to the natural ordering of its elements.
All elements in the array must implement the Comparable
interface. Furthermore, all elements in the array must be
mutually comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must
not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array to be sorted 
Throws  

ClassCastException 
if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers) 
IllegalArgumentException 
(optional) if the natural
ordering of the array elements is found to violate the
Comparable contract

void sort (int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order. The range
to be sorted extends from the index fromIndex
, inclusive, to
the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
,
the range to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array to be sorted 
fromIndex 
int :
the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sorted 
toIndex 
int :
the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sorted 
Throws  

IllegalArgumentException 
if fromIndex > toIndex 
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length

void sort (float[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float
values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value,
even itself. This method uses the total order imposed by the method
compareTo(T)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than value
0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any
other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array to be sorted

Spliterator.OfLong spliterator (long[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a Spliterator.OfLong
covering the specified range of the
specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfLong 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
Spliterator.OfLong spliterator (long[] array)
Returns a Spliterator.OfLong
covering all of the specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfLong 
the spliterator for the array elements 
Spliterator.OfDouble spliterator (double[] array)
Returns a Spliterator.OfDouble
covering all of the specified
array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfDouble 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Spliterator.OfInt spliterator (int[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a Spliterator.OfInt
covering the specified range of the
specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfInt 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
Spliterator<T> spliterator (T[] array)
Returns a Spliterator
covering all of the specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
T :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

Spliterator<T> 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Spliterator.OfInt spliterator (int[] array)
Returns a Spliterator.OfInt
covering all of the specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfInt 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Spliterator<T> spliterator (T[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a Spliterator
covering the specified range of the
specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
T :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

Spliterator<T> 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
Spliterator.OfDouble spliterator (double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a Spliterator.OfDouble
covering the specified range of
the specified array.
The spliterator reports SIZED
,
SUBSIZED
, ORDERED
, and
IMMUTABLE
.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

Spliterator.OfDouble 
a spliterator for the array elements 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
IntStream stream (int[] array)
Returns a sequential IntStream
with the specified array as its
source.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

IntStream 
an IntStream for the array 
LongStream stream (long[] array)
Returns a sequential LongStream
with the specified array as its
source.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

LongStream 
a LongStream for the array 
Stream<T> stream (T[] array)
Returns a sequential Stream
with the specified array as its
source.
Parameters  

array 
T :
The array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

Stream<T> 
a Stream for the array 
DoubleStream stream (double[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential DoubleStream
with the specified range of the
specified array as its source.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

DoubleStream 
a DoubleStream for the array range 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
DoubleStream stream (double[] array)
Returns a sequential DoubleStream
with the specified array as its
source.
Parameters  

array 
double :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
Returns  

DoubleStream 
a DoubleStream for the array 
IntStream stream (int[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential IntStream
with the specified range of the
specified array as its source.
Parameters  

array 
int :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

IntStream 
an IntStream for the array range 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
Stream<T> stream (T[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential Stream
with the specified range of the
specified array as its source.
Parameters  

array 
T :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

Stream<T> 
a Stream for the array range 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
LongStream stream (long[] array, int startInclusive, int endExclusive)
Returns a sequential LongStream
with the specified range of the
specified array as its source.
Parameters  

array 
long :
the array, assumed to be unmodified during use 
startInclusive 
int :
the first index to cover, inclusive 
endExclusive 
int :
index immediately past the last index to cover 
Returns  

LongStream 
a LongStream for the array range 
Throws  

ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException 
if startInclusive is
negative, endExclusive is less than
startInclusive , or endExclusive is greater than
the array size 
String toString (float[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(float). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
float :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (int[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(int). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
int :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.
If the array contains other arrays as elements, they are converted to
strings by the toString()
method inherited from
Object, which describes their identities rather than
their contents.
The value returned by this method is equal to the value that would be returned by Arrays.asList(a).toString(), unless a is null, in which case "null" is returned.
Parameters  

a 
Object :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
See also:
String toString (long[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(long). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
long :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (boolean[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(boolean). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
boolean :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (double[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(double). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
double :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (short[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(short). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
short :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (char[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(char). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
char :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 
String toString (byte[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array. The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(byte). Returns "null" if a is null.
Parameters  

a 
byte :
the array whose string representation to return 
Returns  

String 
a string representation of a 