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Relation

public abstract @interface Relation
implements Annotation

androidx.room.Relation


A convenience annotation which can be used in a POJO to automatically fetch relation entities. When the POJO is returned from a query, all of its relations are also fetched by Room.

 @Entity
 public class Song {
     @ PrimaryKey
     int songId;
     int albumId;
     String name;
     // other fields
 }
 public class AlbumNameAndAllSongs {
     int id;
     String name;
     @Relation(parentColumn = "id", entityColumn = "albumId")
     List<Song> songs;
 }

 @Dao
 public interface MusicDao {
     @Query("SELECT id, name FROM Album")
     List<AlbumNameAndAllSongs> loadAlbumAndSongs();
 }
 

For a one-to-many or many-to-many relationship, the type of the field annotated with Relation must be a List or Set.

By default, the Entity type is inferred from the return type. If you would like to return a different object, you can specify the entity() property in the annotation.

 public class Album {
     int id;
     // other fields
 }
 public class SongNameAndId {
     int songId;
     String name;
 }
 public class AlbumAllSongs {
     @Embedded
     Album album;
     @Relation(parentColumn = "id", entityColumn = "albumId", entity = Song.class)
     List<SongNameAndId> songs;
 }
 @Dao
 public interface MusicDao {
     @Query("SELECT * from Album")
     List<AlbumAllSongs> loadAlbumAndSongs();
 }
 

In the example above, SongNameAndId is a regular POJO but all of fields are fetched from the entity defined in the @Relation annotation (Song). SongNameAndId could also define its own relations all of which would also be fetched automatically.

If you would like to specify which columns are fetched from the child Entity, you can use projection() property in the Relation annotation.

 public class AlbumAndAllSongs {
     @Embedded
     Album album;
     @Relation(
             parentColumn = "id",
             entityColumn = "albumId",
             entity = Song.class,
             projection = {"name"})
     List<String> songNames;
 }
 

If the relationship is defined by an associative table (also know as junction table) then you can use associateBy() to specify it. This is useful for fetching many-to-many relations.

Note that @Relation annotation can be used only in POJO classes, an Entity class cannot have relations. This is a design decision to avoid common pitfalls in Entity setups. You can read more about it in the main Room documentation. When loading data, you can simply work around this limitation by creating POJO classes that extend the Entity.

See also:

Summary

Public methods

Junction associateBy()

The entity or view to be used as a associative table (also known as a junction table) when fetching the relating entities.

Class<?> entity()

The entity or view to fetch the item from.

String entityColumn()

The column to match in the entity().

String parentColumn()

Reference column in the parent POJO.

String[] projection()

If sub columns should be fetched from the entity, you can specify them using this field.

Inherited methods

Public methods

associateBy

public Junction associateBy ()

The entity or view to be used as a associative table (also known as a junction table) when fetching the relating entities.

Returns
Junction The junction describing the associative table. By default, no junction is specified and none will be used.

See also:

entity

public Class<?> entity ()

The entity or view to fetch the item from. You don't need to set this if the entity or view matches the type argument in the return type.

Returns
Class<?> The entity or view to fetch from. By default, inherited from the return type.

entityColumn

public String entityColumn ()

The column to match in the entity().

In a one-to-one or one-to-many relation, this value will be matched against the column defined in parentColumn() ()}. In a many-to-many using associateBy() then this value will be matched against the Junction.entityColumn()

Returns
String

parentColumn

public String parentColumn ()

Reference column in the parent POJO.

In a one-to-one or one-to-many relation, this value will be matched against the column defined in entityColumn(). In a many-to-many using associateBy() then this value will be matched against the Junction.parentColumn()

Returns
String The column reference in the parent object.

projection

public String[] projection ()

If sub columns should be fetched from the entity, you can specify them using this field.

By default, inferred from the the return type.

Returns
String[] The list of columns to be selected from the entity().