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Achieve proper frame pacing

The Android Frame Pacing library, also known as Swappy, is part of the Android Game SDK. It helps OpenGL and Vulkan games achieve smooth rendering and correct frame pacing on Android. This document defines frame pacing, describes situations where frame pacing is needed, and shows how the library addresses these situations. If you want to jump directly to implementing frame pacing in your game, see Next step.


Frame pacing is the synchronization of a game’s logic and rendering loop with an OS’s display subsystem and the underlying display hardware. The Android display subsystem was designed to avoid visual artifacts (known as tearing) that can occur when the display hardware switches to a new frame part-way through an update. To avoid these artifacts, the display subsystem does the following:

  • Buffers past frames internally
  • Detects late frame submissions
  • Repeats the display of past frames when late frames are detected

A game informs SurfaceFlinger, the compositor within the display subsystem, that it has submitted all the draw calls needed for a frame (by calling eglSwapBuffers or vkQueuePresentKHR). SurfaceFlinger signals availability of a frame to the display hardware using a latch. The display hardware then shows the given frame. The display hardware ticks at a constant rate, for example 60 Hz, and if there is no new frame when the hardware needs one, the hardware displays the previous frame again.

Inconsistent frame times often occur when a game render loop renders at a different rate than the native display hardware. If a game running at 30 FPS attempts to render on a device that natively supports 60 FPS, the game render loop doesn't realize that a repeated frame remains on the screen for an extra 16 milliseconds. This disconnect usually creates substantial inconsistency in frame times, such as: 49 milliseconds, 16 milliseconds, 33 milliseconds. Overly complex scenes further compound this problem, as they cause missed frames to occur.

Non-optimal solutions

The following solutions for frame pacing have been employed by games in the past and typically result in inconsistent frame times and increased input latency.

Submit frames as quickly as the rendering API allows

This approach ties a game to variable SurfaceFlinger activity and introduces an extra frame of latency. The display pipeline contains a queue of frames, typically of size 2, which fills up if the game is trying to present frames too quickly. With no more room in the queue, the game loop (or at least the rendering thread) is blocked by an OpenGL or Vulkan call. The game is then forced to wait for the display hardware to show a frame, and this back-pressure synchronizes the two components. This situation is known as buffer-stuffing or queue-stuffing. The renderer process doesn't realize what's going on, so framerate inconsistency gets worse. If the game samples input before the frame, input latency gets worse.

Use Android Choreographer by itself

Games also use Android Choreographer for synchronization. This component, available in Java from API 16 and in C++ from API 24, delivers regular ticks at the same frequency as the display subsystem. There are still subtleties as to when this tick is delivered relative to the actual hardware VSYNC, and these offsets vary by device. Buffer-stuffing may still occur for long frames.

Advantages of the Frame Pacing library

The Frame Pacing library uses Android Choreographer for synchronization and deals with the variability in the tick delivery for you. It uses presentation timestamps to make sure frames are presented at the proper time and sync fences to avoid buffer stuffing. The library uses the NDK Choreographer if it is available and falls back to the Java Choreographer if it is not.

The library handles multiple refresh rates if they are supported by the device, which gives a game more flexibility in presenting a frame. For example, for a device that supports a 60 Hz refresh rate as well as 90 Hz, a game that cannot produce 60 frames per second can drop to 45 FPS instead of 30 FPS to remain smooth. The library detects the expected game frame rate and auto-adjusts frame presentation times accordingly.

How it works

The following sections show how the Frame Pacing library deals with long and short game frames in order to achieve correct frame pacing.

Correct frame pacing at 30 Hz

When rendering at 30 Hz on a 60 Hz device, the ideal situation on Android is shown in figure 1. SurfaceFlinger latches new graphic buffers, if present (NB in the diagram indicates "no buffer" present and the previous one is repeated).

Ideal frame pacing at 30 Hz on a 60 Hz device

Figure 1. Ideal frame pacing at 30 Hz on a 60 Hz device

Short game frames lead to stuttering

On most modern devices, game engines rely on the platform choreographer delivering ticks to drive the submission of frames. However, there is still the possibility for poor frame pacing due to short frames, as seen in figure 2. Short frames followed by long frames are perceived by the player as stuttering.

Short game frames

Figure 2. Short game frame C causes frame B to present only one frame, followed by multiple C frames

The Frame Pacing library solves this by using presentation timestamps. The library uses the presentation timestamp extensions EGL_ANDROID_presentation_time and VK_GOOGLE_display_timing so that frames are not presented early, as seen in figure 3.

Presentation timestamps

Figure 3. Game frame B presented twice for a smoother display

Long frames lead to stuttering and latency

When the display workload takes longer than the application workload, extra frames are added to a queue. This leads, once again, to stuttering and may also lead to an extra frame of latency due to buffer-stuffing (see figure 4). The library both removes the stuttering and the extra frame of latency.

Long game frames

Figure 4. Long frame B gives incorrect pacing for 2 frames—A and B

The library solves this by using sync fences (EGL_KHR_fence_sync and VkFence) to inject waits into the application that allow the display pipeline to catch up, rather than allowing back pressure to build up. Frame A still presents an extra frame, but frame B now presents correctly, as seen in figure 5.

Waits added into application layer

Figure 5. Frames C and D wait to present

Supported operating modes

You can configure the Frame Pacing library to operate in one of the three following modes:

  • Auto mode off + Pipeline
  • Auto mode on + Pipeline
  • Auto mode on + Auto pipeline mode (Pipeline/Non-pipeline)

You can experiment with auto-mode and pipeline modes, but you start by turning them off and including the following after initializing Swappy:


Pipeline mode

To coordinate engine workloads, the library typically uses a pipelining model which separates the CPU and GPU workloads across VSYNC boundaries.

Pipeline mode

Figure 6. Pipeline mode

Non-pipeline mode

In general, this approach results in lower, more predictable input-screen latency. In cases where a game has a very low frame time, both the CPU and GPU workloads may fit into a single swap interval. In this case, a non-pipelined approach would actually deliver lower input-screen latency.

Non-pipeline mode

Figure 7. Non-pipeline mode

Auto mode

Most games don’t know how to choose the swap interval, which is the duration for which each frame is presented (for example, 33.3 ms for 30 Hz). On some devices, a game can render at 60 FPS while on another it may need to drop to a lower value. Auto mode measures CPU and GPU times in order to do the following:

  • Automatically select swap intervals: Games which deliver 30 Hz in some scenes and 60 Hz in others can allow the library to adjust this interval dynamically.
  • Deactivate pipelining for ultra-fast frames: Delivers optimal input-screen latency in all cases.

Multiple refresh rates

Devices that support multiple refresh rates provide higher flexibility in choosing a swap interval that looks smooth:

  • On 60 Hz devices: 60 FPS / 30 FPS / 20FPS
  • On 60 Hz + 90 Hz devices: 90 FPS / 60 FPS / 45 FPS / 30 FPS
  • On 60 Hz + 90 Hz + 120 Hz devices: 120 FPS / 90 FPS / 60 FPS / 45 FPS / 40 FPS / 30 FPS

The library chooses the refresh rate that best matches the actual rendering duration of a game’s frames, giving a better visual experience.

For more information on multiple refresh rate frame pacing, see the High refresh rate rendering on Android blog post.

Frame stats

The Frame Pacing library offers the following statistics for debugging and profiling purposes:

  • A histogram of the number of screen refreshes a frame waited in the compositor queue after rendering was completed.
  • A histogram of the number of screen refreshes passed between the requested presentation time and the actual present time.
  • A histogram of the number of screen refreshes passed between two consecutive frames.
  • A histogram of the number of screen refreshes passed between the start of CPU work for this frame and the actual present time.

Next step

See either of the following guides to integrate the Android Frame Pacing library into your game: