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Cómo crear una jerarquía en código   Parte de Android Jetpack

Puedes crear una jerarquía de manera programática en onCreatePreferences(), tal como se muestra en el siguiente ejemplo:

Kotlin

override fun onCreatePreferences(savedInstanceState: Bundle?, rootKey: String?) {
    val context = preferenceManager.context
    val screen = preferenceManager.createPreferenceScreen(context)

    val notificationPreference = SwitchPreferenceCompat(context)
    notificationPreference.key = "notifications"
    notificationPreference.title = "Enable message notifications"

    val feedbackPreference = Preference(context)
    feedbackPreference.key = "feedback"
    feedbackPreference.title = "Send feedback"
    feedbackPreference.summary = "Report technical issues or suggest new features"

    screen.addPreference(notificationPreference)
    screen.addPreference(feedbackPreference)

    preferenceScreen = screen
}

Java

@Override
public void onCreatePreferences(Bundle savedInstanceState, String rootKey) {
    Context context = getPreferenceManager().getContext();
    PreferenceScreen screen = getPreferenceManager().createPreferenceScreen(context);

    SwitchPreferenceCompat notificationPreference = new SwitchPreferenceCompat(context);
    notificationPreference.setKey("notifications");
    notificationPreference.setTitle("Enable message notifications");

    Preference feedbackPreference = new Preference(context);
    feedbackPreference.setKey("feedback");
    feedbackPreference.setTitle("Send feedback");
    feedbackPreference.setSummary("Report technical issues or suggest new features");

    screen.addPreference(notificationPreference);
    screen.addPreference(feedbackPreference);

    setPreferenceScreen(screen);
}

El procedimiento para agregar un objeto PreferenceCategory es similar, como se ve más abajo. Recuerda agregar los elementos secundarios al objeto PreferenceCategory y no al objeto PreferenceScreen raíz:

Kotlin

override fun onCreatePreferences(savedInstanceState: Bundle?, rootKey: String?) {
    val context = preferenceManager.context
    val screen = preferenceManager.createPreferenceScreen(context)

    val notificationPreference = SwitchPreferenceCompat(context)
    notificationPreference.key = "notifications"
    notificationPreference.title = "Enable message notifications"

    val notificationCategory = PreferenceCategory(context)
    notificationCategory.key = "notifications_category"
    notificationCategory.title = "Notifications"
    screen.addPreference(notificationCategory)
    notificationCategory.addPreference(notificationPreference)

    val feedbackPreference = Preference(context)
    feedbackPreference.key = "feedback"
    feedbackPreference.title = "Send feedback"
    feedbackPreference.summary = "Report technical issues or suggest new features"

    val helpCategory = PreferenceCategory(context)
    helpCategory.key = "help"
    helpCategory.title = "Help"
    screen.addPreference(helpCategory)
    helpCategory.addPreference(feedbackPreference)

    preferenceScreen = screen
}

Java

@Override
public void onCreatePreferences(Bundle savedInstanceState, String rootKey) {
    Context context = getPreferenceManager().getContext();
    PreferenceScreen screen = getPreferenceManager().createPreferenceScreen(context);

    SwitchPreferenceCompat notificationPreference = new SwitchPreferenceCompat(context);
    notificationPreference.setKey("notifications");
    notificationPreference.setTitle("Enable message notifications");

    PreferenceCategory notificationCategory = new PreferenceCategory(context);
    notificationCategory.setKey("notifications_category");
    notificationCategory.setTitle("Notifications");
    screen.addPreference(notificationCategory);
    notificationCategory.addPreference(notificationPreference);

    Preference feedbackPreference = new Preference(context);
    feedbackPreference.setKey("feedback");
    feedbackPreference.setTitle("Send feedback");
    feedbackPreference.setSummary("Report technical issues or suggest new features");

    PreferenceCategory helpCategory = new PreferenceCategory(context);
    helpCategory.setKey("help");
    helpCategory.setTitle("Help");
    screen.addPreference(helpCategory);
    helpCategory.addPreference(feedbackPreference);

    setPreferenceScreen(screen);
}