Hilt testing guide

One of the benefits of using dependency injection frameworks like Hilt is that it makes testing your code easier.

Unit tests

Hilt isn't necessary for unit tests, since when testing a class that uses constructor injection, you don't need to use Hilt to instantiate that class. Instead, you can directly call a class constructor by passing in fake or mock dependencies, just as you would if the constructor weren't annotated:

Kotlin

@ActivityScoped
class AnalyticsAdapter @Inject constructor(
  private val service: AnalyticsService
) { ... }

class AnalyticsAdapterTest {

  @Test
  fun `Happy path`() {
    // You don't need Hilt to create an instance of AnalyticsAdapter.
    // You can pass a fake or mock AnalyticsService.
    val adapter = AnalyticsAdapter(fakeAnalyticsService)
    assertEquals(...)
  }
}

Java

@ActivityScope
public class AnalyticsAdapter {

  private final AnalyticsService analyticsService;

  @Inject
  AnalyticsAdapter(AnalyticsService analyticsService) {
    this.analyticsService = analyticsService;
  }
}

public final class AnalyticsAdapterTest {

  @Test
  public void happyPath() {
    // You don't need Hilt to create an instance of AnalyticsAdapter.
    // You can pass a fake or mock AnalyticsService.
    AnalyticsAdapter adapter = new AnalyticsAdapter(fakeAnalyticsService);
    assertEquals(...);
  }
}

End-to-end tests

For integration tests, Hilt injects dependencies as it would in your production code. Testing with Hilt requires no maintenance because Hilt automatically generates a new set of components for each test.

Adding testing dependencies

To use Hilt in your tests, include the hilt-android-testing dependency in your project:

Groovy

dependencies {
    // For Robolectric tests.
    testImplementation 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-testing:2.38.1'
    // ...with Kotlin.
    kaptTest 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1'
    // ...with Java.
    testAnnotationProcessor 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1'


    // For instrumented tests.
    androidTestImplementation 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-testing:2.38.1'
    // ...with Kotlin.
    kaptAndroidTest 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1'
    // ...with Java.
    androidTestAnnotationProcessor 'com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1'
}

Kotlin

dependencies {
    // For Robolectric tests.
    testImplementation("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-testing:2.38.1")
    // ...with Kotlin.
    kaptTest("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1")
    // ...with Java.
    testAnnotationProcessor("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1")


    // For instrumented tests.
    androidTestImplementation("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-testing:2.38.1")
    // ...with Kotlin.
    kaptAndroidTest("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1")
    // ...with Java.
    androidTestAnnotationProcessor("com.google.dagger:hilt-android-compiler:2.38.1")
}

UI test setup

You must annotate any UI test that uses Hilt with @HiltAndroidTest. This annotation is responsible for generating the Hilt components for each test.

Also, you need to add the HiltAndroidRule to the test class. It manages the components' state and is used to perform injection on your test:

Kotlin

@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @get:Rule
  var hiltRule = HiltAndroidRule(this)

  // UI tests here.
}

Java

@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Rule
  public HiltAndroidRule hiltRule = new HiltAndroidRule(this);

  // UI tests here.
}

Next, your test needs to know about the Application class that Hilt automatically generates for you.

Test application

You must execute instrumented tests that use Hilt in an Application object that supports Hilt. The library provides HiltTestApplication for use in tests. If your tests need a different base application, see Custom application for tests.

You must set your test application to run in your instrumented tests or Robolectric tests. The following instructions aren't specific to Hilt, but are general guidelines on how to specify a custom application to run in tests.

Set the test application in instrumented tests

To use the Hilt test application in instrumented tests, you need to configure a new test runner. This makes Hilt work for all of the instrumented tests in your project. Perform the following steps:

  1. Create a custom class that extends AndroidJUnitRunner in the androidTest folder.
  2. Override the newApplication function and pass in the name of the generated Hilt test application.

Kotlin

// A custom runner to set up the instrumented application class for tests.
class CustomTestRunner : AndroidJUnitRunner() {

    override fun newApplication(cl: ClassLoader?, name: String?, context: Context?): Application {
        return super.newApplication(cl, HiltTestApplication::class.java.name, context)
    }
}

Java

// A custom runner to set up the instrumented application class for tests.
public final class CustomTestRunner extends AndroidJUnitRunner {

  @Override
  public Application newApplication(ClassLoader cl, String className, Context context)
      throws ClassNotFoundException, IllegalAccessException, InstantiationException {
    return super.newApplication(cl, HiltTestApplication.class.getName(), context);
  }
}

Next, configure this test runner in your Gradle file as described in the instrumented unit test guide. Make sure you use the full classpath:

Groovy

android {
    defaultConfig {
        // Replace com.example.android.dagger with your class path.
        testInstrumentationRunner "com.example.android.dagger.CustomTestRunner"
    }
}

Kotlin

android {
    defaultConfig {
        // Replace com.example.android.dagger with your class path.
        testInstrumentationRunner = "com.example.android.dagger.CustomTestRunner"
    }
}
Set the test application in Robolectric tests

If you use Robolectric to test your UI layer, you can specify which application to use in the robolectric.properties file:

application = dagger.hilt.android.testing.HiltTestApplication

Alternatively, you can configure the application on each test individually by using Robolectric's @Config annotation:

Kotlin

@HiltAndroidTest
@Config(application = HiltTestApplication::class)
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @get:Rule
  var hiltRule = HiltAndroidRule(this)

  // Robolectric tests here.
}

Java

@HiltAndroidTest
@Config(application = HiltTestApplication.class)
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Rule public HiltAndroidRule hiltRule = new HiltAndroidRule(this);

  // Robolectric tests here.
}

If you use an Android Gradle Plugin version lower than 4.2, enable transforming @AndroidEntryPoint classes in local unit tests by applying the following configuration in your module's build.gradle file:

Groovy

hilt {
    enableTransformForLocalTests = true
}

Kotlin

hilt {
    enableTransformForLocalTests = true
}

More information about enableTransformForLocalTests in the Hilt documentation.

Testing features

Once Hilt is ready to use in your tests, you can use several features to customize the testing process.

Inject types in tests

To inject types into a test, use @Inject for field injection. To tell Hilt to populate the @Inject fields, call hiltRule.inject().

See the following example of an instrumented test:

Kotlin

@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @get:Rule
  var hiltRule = HiltAndroidRule(this)

  @Inject
  lateinit var analyticsAdapter: AnalyticsAdapter

  @Before
  fun init() {
    hiltRule.inject()
  }

  @Test
  fun `happy path`() {
    // Can already use analyticsAdapter here.
  }
}

Java

@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Rule public HiltAndroidRule hiltRule = new HiltAndroidRule(this);

  @Inject AnalyticsAdapter analyticsAdapter;

  @Before
  public void init() {
    hiltRule.inject();
  }

  @Test
  public void happyPath() {
    // Can already use analyticsAdapter here.
  }
}

Replace a binding

If you need to inject a fake or mock instance of a dependency, you need to tell Hilt not to use the binding that it used in production code and to use a different one instead. To replace a binding, you need to replace the module that contains the binding with a test module that contains the bindings that you want to use in the test.

For example, suppose your production code declares a binding for AnalyticsService as follows:

Kotlin

@Module
@InstallIn(SingletonComponent::class)
abstract class AnalyticsModule {

  @Singleton
  @Binds
  abstract fun bindAnalyticsService(
    analyticsServiceImpl: AnalyticsServiceImpl
  ): AnalyticsService
}

Java

@Module
@InstallIn(SingletonComponent.class)
public abstract class AnalyticsModule {

  @Singleton
  @Binds
  public abstract AnalyticsService bindAnalyticsService(
    AnalyticsServiceImpl analyticsServiceImpl
  );
}

To replace the AnalyticsService binding in tests, create a new Hilt module in the test or androidTest folder with the fake dependency and annotate it with @TestInstallIn. All the tests in that folder are injected with the fake dependency instead.

Kotlin

@Module
@TestInstallIn(
    components = [SingletonComponent::class],
    replaces = [AnalyticsModule::class]
)
abstract class FakeAnalyticsModule {

  @Singleton
  @Binds
  abstract fun bindAnalyticsService(
    fakeAnalyticsService: FakeAnalyticsService
  ): AnalyticsService
}

Java

@Module
@TestInstallIn(
    components = SingletonComponent.class,
    replaces = AnalyticsModule.class
)
public abstract class FakeAnalyticsModule {

  @Singleton
  @Binds
  public abstract AnalyticsService bindAnalyticsService(
    FakeAnalyticsService fakeAnalyticsService
  );
}

Replace a binding in a single test

To replace a binding in a single test instead of all tests, uninstall a Hilt module from a test using the @UninstallModules annotation and create a new test module inside the test.

Following the AnalyticsService example from the previous version, begin by telling Hilt to ignore the production module by using the @UninstallModules annotation in the test class:

Kotlin

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule::class)
@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest { ... }

Java

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule.class)
@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest { ... }

Next, you must replace the binding. Create a new module within the test class that defines the test binding:

Kotlin

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule::class)
@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Module
  @InstallIn(SingletonComponent::class)
  abstract class TestModule {

    @Singleton
    @Binds
    abstract fun bindAnalyticsService(
      fakeAnalyticsService: FakeAnalyticsService
    ): AnalyticsService
  }

  ...
}

Java

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule.class)
@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Module
  @InstallIn(SingletonComponent.class)
  public abstract class TestModule {

    @Singleton
    @Binds
    public abstract AnalyticsService bindAnalyticsService(
      FakeAnalyticsService fakeAnalyticsService
    );
  }
  ...
}

This only replaces the binding for a single test class. If you want to replace the binding for all test classes, use the @TestInstallIn annotation from the section above. Alternatively, you can put the test binding in the test module for Robolectric tests, or in the androidTest module for instrumented tests. The recommendation is to use @TestInstallIn whenever possible.

Binding new values

Use the @BindValue annotation to easily bind fields in your test into the Hilt dependency graph. Annotate a field with @BindValue and it will be bound under the declared field type with any qualifiers that are present for that field.

In the AnalyticsService example, you can replace AnalyticsService with a fake by using @BindValue:

Kotlin

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule::class)
@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @BindValue @JvmField
  val analyticsService: AnalyticsService = FakeAnalyticsService()

  ...
}

Java

@UninstallModules(AnalyticsModule.class)
@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @BindValue AnalyticsService analyticsService = FakeAnalyticsService();

  ...
}

This simplifies both replacing a binding and referencing a binding in your test by allowing you to do both at the same time.

@BindValue works with qualifiers and other testing annotations. For example, if you use testing libraries such as Mockito, you could use it in a Robolectric test as follows:

Kotlin

...
class SettingsActivityTest {
  ...

  @BindValue @ExampleQualifier @Mock
  lateinit var qualifiedVariable: ExampleCustomType

  // Robolectric tests here
}

Java

...
class SettingsActivityTest {
  ...
  @BindValue @ExampleQualifier @Mock ExampleCustomType qualifiedVariable;

  // Robolectric tests here
}

If you need to add a multibinding, you can use the @BindValueIntoSet and @BindValueIntoMap annotations in place of @BindValue. @BindValueIntoMap requires you to also annotate the field with a map key annotation.

Special cases

Hilt also provides features to support nonstandard use cases.

Custom application for tests

If you cannot use HiltTestApplication because your test application needs to extend another application, annotate a new class or interface with @CustomTestApplication, passing in the value of the base class you want the generated Hilt application to extend.

@CustomTestApplication will generate an Application class ready for testing with Hilt that extends the application you passed as a parameter.

Kotlin

@CustomTestApplication(BaseApplication::class)
interface HiltTestApplication

Java

@CustomTestApplication(BaseApplication.class)
interface HiltTestApplication { }

In the example, Hilt generates an Application named HiltTestApplication_Application that extends the BaseApplication class. In general, the name of the generated application is the name of the annotated class appended with _Application. You must set the generated Hilt test application to run in your instrumented tests or Robolectric tests as described in Test application.

Multiple TestRule objects in your instrumented test

If you have other TestRule objects in your test, there are multiple ways to ensure that all of the rules work together.

You can wrap the rules together as follows:

Kotlin

@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @get:Rule
  var rule = RuleChain.outerRule(HiltAndroidRule(this)).
        around(SettingsActivityTestRule(...))

  // UI tests here.
}

Java

@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Rule public RuleChain rule = RuleChain.outerRule(new HiltAndroidRule(this))
        .around(new SettingsActivityTestRule(...));

  // UI tests here.
}

Alternatively, you can use both rules at the same level as long as the HiltAndroidRule executes first. Specify the execution order using the order attribute in the @Rule annotation. This only works in JUnit version 4.13 or higher:

Kotlin

@HiltAndroidTest
class SettingsActivityTest {

  @get:Rule(order = 0)
  var HiltAndroidRule = HiltAndroidRule(this)

  @get:Rule(order = 1)
  var settingsActivityTestRule = SettingsActivityTestRule()

  // UI tests here.
}

Java

@HiltAndroidTest
public final class SettingsActivityTest {

  @Rule(order = 0)
  public HiltAndroidRule rule = new HiltAndroidRule(this);

  @Rule(order = 1)
  public SettingsActivityTestRule rule = new SettingsActivityTestRule(...);

  // UI tests here.
}

launchFragmentInContainer

It is not possible to use launchFragmentInContainer from the androidx.fragment:fragment-testing library with Hilt, because it relies on an activity that is not annotated with @AndroidEntryPoint.

Use the launchFragmentInHiltContainer code from the architecture-samples GitHub repository instead.

Use an entry point before the singleton component is available

The @EarlyEntryPoint annotation provides an escape hatch when a Hilt entry point needs to be created before the singleton component is available in a Hilt test.

More information about @EarlyEntryPoint in the Hilt documentation.