Manually create and measure Baseline Profiles

We highly recommend automating generation of profile rules using the Jetpack Macrobenchmark library to reduce manual effort and increase general scalability. However, it is possible to manually create and measure profile rules in your app.

Define profile rules manually

You can define profile rules manually in an app or a library module by creating a file called baseline-prof.txt located in the src/main directory. This is the same folder that contains the AndroidManifest.xml file.

The file specifies one rule per line. Each rule represents a pattern for matching methods or classes in the app or library that needs to be optimized.

The syntax for these rules is a superset of the human-readable ART profile format (HRF) when using adb shell profman --dump-classes-and-methods. The syntax is similar to the syntax for descriptors and signatures, but lets wildcards be used to simplify the rule-writing process.

The following example shows a few Baseline Profile rules included in the Jetpack Compose library:


Rule syntax

These rules take one of two forms to target either methods or classes:


A class rule uses the following pattern:


See the following table for a detailed description:

Syntax Description
FLAGS Represents one or more of the characters H, S, and P to indicate whether this method must be flagged as Hot, Startup, or Post Startup in regards to the startup type.

A method with the H flag indicates that it is a "hot" method, meaning it is called many times during the lifetime of the app.

A method with the S flag indicates that it is a method called during startup.

A method with the P flag indicates that it is a method called after startup.

A class present in this file indicates that it is used during startup and must be pre-allocated in the heap to avoid the cost of class loading. ART compiler employs various optimization strategies, such as AOT compilation of these methods and performing layout optimizations in the generated AOT file.
CLASS_DESCRIPTOR Descriptor for the targeted method's class. For example, androidx.compose.runtime.SlotTable has a descriptor of Landroidx/compose/runtime/SlotTable;. L is prepended here per the Dalvik Executable (DEX) format.
METHOD_SIGNATURE Signature of the method, including the name, parameter types, and return types of the method. For example:

// LayoutNode.kt

fun isPlaced():Boolean {
// ...

on LayoutNode has the signature isPlaced()Z.

These patterns can have wildcards to have a single rule encompass multiple methods or classes. For guided assistance when writing with rule syntax in Android Studio, see the Android Baseline Profiles plugin.

An example of a wildcard rule might look something like this:


Supported types in Baseline Profile rules

Baseline Profile rules support the following types. For details on these types, see the Dalvik Executable (DEX) format.

Character Type Description
B byte Signed byte
C char Unicode character code point encoded in UTF-16
D double Double-precision floating point value
F float Single-precision floating point value
I int Integer
J long Long integer
S short Signed short
V void Void
Z boolean True or false
L (class name) reference An instance of a class name

Additionally, libraries can define rules that are packaged in AAR artifacts. When you build an APK to include these artifacts, the rules are merged together—similar to how manifest merging is done—and compiled to a compact binary ART profile that is specific to the APK.

ART leverages this profile when the APK is used on devices to AOT compile a specific subset of the app at install-time on Android 9 (API level 28), or Android 7 (API level 24) when using ProfileInstaller.

Manually collect Baseline Profiles

You can manually generate a Baseline Profile without setting up the Macrobenchmark library and create UI automations of your critical user journeys. Although we recommend using Macrobenchmarks, it might not always be possible. For example, if you're using a non-Gradle build system, then you can't use the Baseline Profile Gradle plugin. In such cases, you can manually collect Baseline Profile rules. This is much easier if you use a device or emulator running API 34 and higher. Although it's still possible with lower API levels, it requires root access, and you need to use an emulator running an AOSP image. You can collect rules directly by doing the following:

  1. Install a release version of your app on a test device. The app build type must be R8-optimized and non-debuggable for an accurate profile.
  2. Make sure the profiles aren't already compiled.

    API 34 and higher

    adb shell cmd package compile -f -m verify $PACKAGE_NAME
    adb shell pm art clear-app-profiles $PACKAGE_NAME

    API 33 and lower

    adb root
    adb shell cmd package compile --reset $PACKAGE_NAME

    If your APK has a dependency on the Jetpack Profile Installer library, the library bootstraps a profile on the first launch of your APK. This can interfere with the profile generation process, so disable it with the following command:

    adb shell am broadcast -a androidx.profileinstaller.action.SKIP_FILE $PACKAGE_NAME/androidx.profileinstaller.ProfileInstallReceiver
  3. Run the app and manually navigate through your critical user journeys you want to collect a profile for.
  4. Prompt ART to dump the profiles. If your APK has a dependency on the Jetpack Profile Installer library, use that to dump the profiles:

    adb shell am broadcast -a androidx.profileinstaller.action.SAVE_FILE $PACKAGE_NAME/androidx.profileinstaller.ProfileInstallReceiver
    adb shell am force-stop $PACKAGE_NAME
    If you're not using Profile Installer, dump the profiles manually on an emulator using the following command:

    adb root
    adb shell killall -s SIGUSR1 $PACKAGE_NAME
    adb shell am force-stop $PACKAGE_NAME
  5. Wait at least five seconds to let profile generation complete.
  6. Convert the binary profiles that are generated to text:

    API 34 and higher

    adb shell pm dump-profiles --dump-classes-and-methods $PACKAGE_NAME

    API 33 and lower

    Determine whether a reference profile or a current profile has been created. A reference profile is located in the following location:


    A current profile is located in the following location:


    Determine the location of the APK:

    adb root
    adb shell pm path $PACKAGE_NAME

    Perform the conversion:

    adb root
    adb shell profman --dump-classes-and-methods --profile-file=$PROFILE_PATH --apk=$APK_PATH > /data/misc/profman/$

  7. Use adb to retrieve the dumped profile from the device:

    adb pull /data/misc/profman/$ PATH_TO_APP_MODULE/src/main/

This pulls the generated profile rules and installs them into your app module. The next time you build the app, the Baseline Profile is included. Verify this by following the steps in Installation issues.

Manually measure app improvements

We highly recommend that you measure app improvements through benchmarking. However, if you'd like to measure improvements manually, you can get started by measuring the unoptimized app startup for reference.
# Force Stop App
adb shell am force-stop $PACKAGE_NAME
# Reset compiled state
adb shell cmd package compile --reset $PACKAGE_NAME
# Measure App startup
# This corresponds to `Time to initial display` metric.
adb shell am start-activity -W -n $PACKAGE_NAME/.ExampleActivity \
 | grep "TotalTime"

Next, sideload the Baseline Profile.

# Unzip the Release APK first.
unzip release.apk
# Create a ZIP archive.
# The name should match the name of the APK.
# Copy `{m}` and rename it `{m}`.
cp assets/dexopt/
cp assets/dexopt/baseline.profm primary.profm
# Create an archive.
zip -r primary.profm
# Confirm that only contains the two profile files:
unzip -l
# Archive:
#   Length      Date    Time    Name
# ---------  ---------- -----   ----
#      3885  1980-12-31 17:01
#      1024  1980-12-31 17:01   primary.profm
# ---------                     -------
#                               2 files
# Install APK + Profile together.
adb install-multiple release.apk

To verify that the package was optimized on install, run the following command:

# Check dexopt state.
adb shell dumpsys package dexopt | grep -A 1 $PACKAGE_NAME

The output must state that the package is compiled:

  path: /data/app/~~YvNxUxuP2e5xA6EGtM5i9A==/
  arm64: [status=speed-profile] [reason=install-dm]

Now, you can measure app startup performance like before but without resetting the compiled state. Ensure that you don't reset the compiled state for the package.

# Force stop app
adb shell am force-stop $PACKAGE_NAME
# Measure app startup
adb shell am start-activity -W -n $PACKAGE_NAME/.ExampleActivity \
 | grep "TotalTime"

Baseline Profiles and profgen

This section describes what the profgen tool does when building a compact binary version of a Baseline Profile.

Profgen-cli helps with profile compilation, introspection, and transpiling ART profiles, so they can be installed on Android-powered devices regardless of the target SDK version.

Profgen-cli is a CLI that compiles the HRF of a Baseline Profile to its compiled format. The CLI also ships in the cmdline-tools repository as part of the Android SDK.

These features are available in the studio-main branch:

➜ ../cmdline-tools/latest/bin

Build compact binary profiles with Profgen-cli

The commands available with Profgen-cli are bin, validate, and dumpProfile. To see the available commands, use profgen --help:

profgen --help
Usage: profgen options_list
    bin - Generate Binary Profile
    validate - Validate Profile
    dumpProfile - Dump a binary profile to a HRF

    --help, -h -> Usage info

Use the bin command to generate the compact binary profile. The following is an example invocation:

profgen bin ./baseline-prof.txt \
  --apk ./release.apk \
  --map ./obfuscation-map.txt \
  --profile-format v0_1_0_p \
  --output ./ \

To see the available options, use profgen bin options_list:

Usage: profgen bin options_list
    profile -> File path to Human Readable profile { String }
    --apk, -a -> File path to apk (always required) { String }
    --output, -o -> File path to generated binary profile (always required)
    --map, -m -> File path to name obfuscation map { String }
    --output-meta, -om -> File path to generated metadata output { String }
    --profile-format, -pf [V0_1_0_P] -> The ART profile format version
      { Value should be one of [
         v0_1_5_s, v0_1_0_p, v0_0_9_omr1, v0_0_5_o, v0_0_1_n
    --help, -h -> Usage info

The first argument represents the path to the baseline-prof.txt HRF.

Profgen-cli also needs the path to the release build of the APK and an obfuscation map that is used to obfuscate the APK when using R8 or Proguard. This way, profgen can translate source symbols in the HRF to their corresponding obfuscated names when building the compiled profile.

Because ART profiles formats aren't forward or backward compatible, provide a profile format so that profgen packages profile metadata (profm) that you can use to transcode one ART profile format to another when required.

Profile formats and platform versions

The following options are available when choosing a profile format:

Profile format Platform version API level
v0_1_5_s Android S+ 31+
v0_1_0_p Android P, Q, and R 28-30
v0_0_9_omr1 Android O MR1 27
v0_0_5_o Android O 26
v0_0_1_n Android N 24-25

Copy the and baseline.profm output files into the assets or dexopt folder in the APK.

Obfuscation maps

You only need to provide the obfuscation map if the HRF uses source symbols. If the HRF is generated from a release build that is already obfuscated and there is no mapping necessary, you can ignore that option and copy the outputs to the assets or dexopt folder.

Traditional installation of Baseline Profiles

Baseline Profiles are traditionally delivered to a device in one of two ways.

Use install-multiple with DexMetadata

On devices running API 28 and later, the Play client downloads the APK and DexMetadata (DM) payload for an APK version being installed. The DM contains the profile information that is passed on to Package Manager on device.

The APK and DM are installed as part of a single install session using something like:

adb install-multiple base.apk

Jetpack ProfileInstaller

On devices running API level 29 and later, the Jetpack ProfileInstaller library provides an alternative mechanism to install a profile packaged into assetsor dexopt after the APK is installed on the device. ProfileInstaller is invoked by ProfileInstallReceiver or by the app directly.

The ProfileInstaller library transcodes the profile based on the target device SDK version, and copies the profile into the cur directory on device (a package-specific staging directory for ART profiles on the device).

Once the device is idle, the profile is then picked up by a process called bg-dexopt on device.

Sideload a Baseline Profile

This section describes how to install a Baseline Profile given an APK.

Broadcast with androidx.profileinstaller

On devices running API 24 and later, you can broadcast a command to install the profile:

# Broadcast the install profile command - moves binary profile from assets
#     to a location where ART uses it for the next compile.
#     When successful, the following command prints "1":
adb shell am broadcast \
    -a androidx.profileinstaller.action.INSTALL_PROFILE \

# Kill the process
am force-stop <pkg>

# Compile the package based on profile
adb shell cmd package compile -f -m speed-profile <pkg>

ProfileInstaller isn't present in most APKs with Baseline Profiles—which is in about 77K of 450K apps in Play—though it is present in effectively every APK using Compose. This is because libraries can provide profiles without declaring a dependency on ProfileInstaller. Adding a dependency in each library with a profile applies starting with Jetpack.

Use install-multiple with profgen or DexMetaData

On devices running API 28 and later, you can sideload a Baseline Profile without having to have the ProfileInstaller library in the app.

To do so, use Profgen-cli:

profgen extractProfile \
        --apk app-release.apk \
        --output-dex-metadata \
        --profile-format V0_1_5_S # Select based on device and the preceding table.

# Install APK and the profile together
adb install-multiple appname-release.apk

To support APK splits, run the preceding extract profile steps once per APK. At install time, pass each APK and associated .dm file, ensuring the APK and .dm names match:

adb install-multiple appname-base.apk \


To verify that the profile is correctly installed, you can use the steps from Manually measure app improvements.

Dump the contents of a binary profile

To introspect the contents of a compact binary version of a Baseline Profile, use the Profgen-cli dumpProfile option:

Usage: profgen dumpProfile options_list
    --profile, -p -> File path to the binary profile (always required)
    --apk, -a -> File path to apk (always required) { String }
    --map, -m -> File path to name obfuscation map { String }
    --strict, -s [true] -> Strict mode
    --output, -o -> File path for the HRF (always required) { String }
    --help, -h -> Usage info

dumpProfile needs the APK because the compact binary representation only stores DEX offsets and, therefore, it needs them to reconstruct class and method names.

Strict mode is enabled by default, and this performs a compatibility check of the profile to the DEX files in the APK. If you are trying to debug profiles that were generated by another tool, you might get compatibility failures that prevent you from being able to dump for investigation. In such cases, you can disable strict mode with --strict false. However, in most cases you should keep strict mode enabled.

An obfuscation map is optional; when provided, it helps remap obfuscated symbols to their human readable versions for ease of use.