调试 WorkManager

如果您发现您的工作器运行过于频繁或根本没有运行,请按照以下几个调试步骤操作,以发现可能存在的问题。

启用日志记录

如需确定工作器未正确运行的原因,查看详细的 WorkManager 日志很有帮助。如需启用日志记录功能,您需要使用自定义初始化。首先,通过创建应用了清单合并规则 remove 的新 WorkManager 提供程序来停用 AndroidManifest.xml 中的默认 WorkManagerInitializer

<provider
    android:name="androidx.work.impl.WorkManagerInitializer"
    android:authorities="${applicationId}.workmanager-init"
    tools:node="remove"/>

现在,默认 WorkManager 初始化程序已停用,您可以使用按需初始化。为此,android.app.Application 类必须提供 androidx.work.Configuration.Provider 的实现。

Kotlin

class MyApplication() : Application(), Configuration.Provider {
    override fun getWorkManagerConfiguration() =
        Configuration.Builder()
            .setMinimumLoggingLevel(android.util.Log.DEBUG)
            .build()
}

Java

public class MyApplication extends Application implements Configuration.Provider {
    @NonNull
    @Override
    public Configuration getWorkManagerConfiguration() {
        return new Configuration.Builder()
                .setMinimumLoggingLevel(android.util.Log.DEBUG)
                .build();
    }
}

在您定义自定义 WorkManager 配置后,WorkManager 会在您调用 WorkManager.getInstance(Context) 时进行初始化,而不是在应用启动时自动初始化。如需了解详情,包括对 2.1.0 之前的 WorkManager 版本提供的支持,请参阅自定义 WorkManager 配置和初始化

启用调试日志记录后,系统会开始显示更多包含日志标记前缀 WM- 的日志。

使用 adb shell dumpsys jobscheduler

搭载 API 级别 23 或更高版本时,您可以运行命令 adb shell dumpsys jobscheduler 来查看已归因于您的软件包的作业列表。

您应该会看到与以下类似的内容:

JOB #u0a172/4: 6412553 com.google.android.youtube/androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService
  u0a172 tag=*job*/com.google.android.youtube/androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService
  Source: uid=u0a172 user=0 pkg=com.google.android.youtube
  JobInfo:
    Service: com.google.android.youtube/androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService
    Requires: charging=false batteryNotLow=false deviceIdle=false
    Extras: mParcelledData.dataSize=180
    Network type: NetworkRequest [ NONE id=0, [ Capabilities: NOT_METERED&INTERNET&NOT_RESTRICTED&TRUSTED&VALIDATED Uid: 10172] ]
    Minimum latency: +1h29m59s687ms
    Backoff: policy=1 initial=+30s0ms
    Has early constraint
  Required constraints: TIMING_DELAY CONNECTIVITY [0x90000000]
  Satisfied constraints: DEVICE_NOT_DOZING BACKGROUND_NOT_RESTRICTED WITHIN_QUOTA [0x3400000]
  Unsatisfied constraints: TIMING_DELAY CONNECTIVITY [0x90000000]
  Tracking: CONNECTIVITY TIME QUOTA
  Implicit constraints:
    readyNotDozing: true
    readyNotRestrictedInBg: true
  Standby bucket: RARE
  Base heartbeat: 0
  Enqueue time: -51m29s853ms
  Run time: earliest=+38m29s834ms, latest=none, original latest=none
  Last run heartbeat: 0
  Ready: false (job=false user=true !pending=true !active=true !backingup=true comp=true)

使用 WorkManager 时,负责管理工作器执行的组件为 SystemJobService(搭载 API 级别 23 或更高版本)。您应该查找归因于您的软件包名称和 androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService 的作业实例。

对于每个作业,命令的输出都会列出必需满足不满足约束条件。您应该检查是否完全满足工作器的约束条件。

您可以利用它检查最近是否调用了 SystemJobService。输出还包括最近执行的作业的作业历史记录:

Job history:
     -1h35m26s440ms   START: #u0a107/9008 com.google.android.youtube/androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService
     -1h35m26s362ms  STOP-P: #u0a107/9008 com.google.android.youtube/androidx.work.impl.background.systemjob.SystemJobService app called jobFinished

从 WorkManager 2.4.0 及更高版本请求诊断信息

在应用的调试 build 中,您可以使用以下命令从 WorkManager 2.4.0 及更高版本请求诊断信息:

adb shell am broadcast -a "androidx.work.diagnostics.REQUEST_DIAGNOSTICS" -p "<your_app_package_name>"

这提供了以下方面的信息:

  • 在过去 24 小时内完成的工作请求。
  • 目前正在运行的工作请求。
  • 预定运行的工作请求。

诊断信息如下所示(输出通过 logcat 显示):

adb shell am broadcast -a "androidx.work.diagnostics.REQUEST_DIAGNOSTICS" -p "androidx.work.integration.testapp"

adb logcat
...
2020-02-13 14:21:37.990 29528-29660/androidx.work.integration.testapp I/WM-DiagnosticsWrkr: Recently completed work:
2020-02-13 14:21:38.083 29528-29660/androidx.work.integration.testapp I/WM-DiagnosticsWrkr: Id  Class Name   State  Unique Name Tags
    08be261c-2def-4bd6-a716-1e4410968dc4     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    48ce04f1-8df9-450b-96ec-6eceabb9c690     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    c46f4699-c384-440c-a10e-26d56ce02963     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    ce125372-046e-484e-949f-9abb35ce62c3     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    72887ddd-8ed1-4018-b798-fac218e95e16     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    dcff3d61-320d-4996-8644-5d97944bd09c     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    acab0bf7-6087-43ad-bdb5-be0df9195acb     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
    23136bcd-01dd-46eb-b910-0fe8a140c2a4     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    245f4879-c6d2-4997-8130-e4e90e1cab4c     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    17d05835-bb61-429a-ad11-fe43fc320a54     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    e95f12be-4b0c-4e64-88da-8ee07a31e42f     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    431c3ec2-4a55-469b-b50b-4072d35f1232     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    883a388f-f911-4098-9143-37bd8fbc098a     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    b904163c-6822-4299-8d5a-78df49b7e53d     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
    453fd7b9-2b16-45b9-abc5-3d2ce7b6a4ba     androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker   SUCCEEDED  null    androidx.work.integration.testapp.ToastWorker
2020-02-13 14:21:38.083 29528-29660/androidx.work.integration.testapp I/WM-DiagnosticsWrkr: Running work:
2020-02-13 14:21:38.089 29528-29660/androidx.work.integration.testapp I/WM-DiagnosticsWrkr: Id  Class Name   State  Unique Name Tags
    b87c8a4f-4ac6-4e25-ba3e-4cea53ce468a     androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker    RUNNING    null    androidx.work.impl.workers.DiagnosticsWorker
...