Google is committed to advancing racial equity for Black communities. See how.

Shared ViewModel Across Fragments

You have learned how to use activities, fragments, intents, data binding, navigation components, and the basics of architecture components. In this codelab, you will put everything together and work on an advanced sample, a cupcake ordering app.

You will learn how to use a shared ViewModel to share data between the fragments of the same activity and new concepts like LiveData transformations.

Prerequisites

  • Comfortable with reading and understanding Android layouts in XML
  • Familiar with the basics of the Jetpack Navigation Component
  • Able to create a navigation graph with fragment destinations in an app
  • Have previously used fragments within an activity
  • Can create a ViewModel to store app data
  • Can use data binding with LiveData to keep the UI up-to-date with the app data in the ViewModel

What you'll learn

  • How to implement recommended app architecture practices within a more advanced use case
  • How to use a shared ViewModel across fragments in an activity
  • How to apply a LiveData transformation

What you'll build

  • A Cupcake app that displays an order flow for cupcakes, allowing the user to choose the cupcake flavor, quantity, and pickup date.

What you need

  • A computer with Android Studio installed.
  • Starter code for the Cupcake app.

Cupcake app overview

The cupcake app demonstrates how to design and implement an online ordering app. At the end of this pathway, you will have completed the Cupcake app with the following screens. The user can choose the quantity, flavor, and other options for the cupcake order.

732881cfc463695d.png

Download the starter code for this codelab

This codelab provides starter code for you to extend with features taught in this codelab. The starter code will contain code that is familiar to you from previous codelabs.

If you download the starter code from GitHub, note that the folder name of the project is android-basics-kotlin-cupcake-app-starter. Select this folder when you open the project in Android Studio.

To get the code for this codelab and open it in Android Studio, do the following.

Get the code

  1. Click on the provided URL. This opens the GitHub page for the project in a browser.
  2. On the GitHub page for the project, click the Code button, which brings up a dialog.

Eme2bJP46u-pMpnXVfm-bS2N2dlyq6c0jn1DtQYqBaml7TUhzXDWpYoDI0lGKi4xndE_uJw8sKfwfOZ1fC503xCVZrbh10JKJ4iEHdLDwFfdvnOheNxkokITW1LW6UZTncVJJUZ5Fw

  1. In the dialog, click the Download ZIP button to save the project to your computer. Wait for the download to complete.
  2. Locate the file on your computer (likely in the Downloads folder).
  3. Double-click the ZIP file to unpack it. This creates a new folder that contains the project files.

Open the project in Android Studio

  1. Start Android Studio.
  2. In the Welcome to Android Studio window, click Open an existing Android Studio project.

Tdjf5eS2nCikM9KdHgFaZNSbIUCzKXP6WfEaKVE2Oz1XIGZhgTJYlaNtXTHPFU1xC9pPiaD-XOPdIxVxwZAK8onA7eJyCXz2Km24B_8rpEVI_Po5qlcMNN8s4Tkt6kHEXdLQTDW7mg

Note: If Android Studio is already open, instead, select the File > New > Import Project menu option.

PaMkVnfCxQqSNB1LxPpC6C6cuVCAc8jWNZCqy5tDVA6IO3NE2fqrfJ6p6ggGpk7jd27ybXaWU7rGNOFi6CvtMyHtWdhNzdAHmndzvEdwshF_SG24Le01z7925JsFa47qa-Q19t3RxQ

  1. In the Import Project dialog, navigate to where the unzipped project folder is located (likely in your Downloads folder).
  2. Double-click on that project folder.
  3. Wait for Android Studio to open the project.
  4. Click the Run button j7ptomO2PEQNe8jFt4nKCOw_Oc_Aucgf4l_La8fGLCMLy0t9RN9SkmBFGOFjkEzlX4ce2w2NWq4J30sDaxEe4MaSNuJPpMgHxnsRYoBtIV3-GUpYYcIvRJ2HrqR27XGuTS4F7lKCzg to build and run the app. Make sure it works as expected.
  5. Browse the project files in the Project tool window to see how the app was implemented.

Starter code walk through

  1. Open the downloaded project in Android Studio. The folder name of the project is android-basics-kotlin-cupcake-app-starter. Then run the app.
  2. Browse the files to understand the starter code. For layout files, you can use the Split option in the top right corner to see a preview of the layout and the XML at the same time.
  3. When you compile and run the app, you'll notice the app is incomplete. The buttons don't do much (except for displaying a Toast message) and you can't navigate to the other fragments.

Here's a walkthrough of important files in the project.

MainActivity:

The MainActivity has similar code to the default generated code, which sets the activity's content view as activity_main.xml. This code uses a parameterized constructor AppCompatActivity(@LayoutRes int contentLayoutId) which takes in a layout that will be inflated as part of super.onCreate(savedInstanceState).

Code in the MainActivity class

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity(R.layout.activity_main)

is same as the following code using the default AppCompatActivity constructor:

class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity() {

   override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
       super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)
       setContentView(R.layout.main_activity)
   }
}

Layouts (res/layout folder):

The layout resource folder contains activity and fragment layout files. These are simple layout files, and the XML is familiar from the previous codelabs.

  • fragment_start.xml is the first screen shown in the app. It has a cupcake image and three buttons to choose the number of cupcakes to order: one cupcake, six cupcakes, and twelve cupcakes.
  • fragment_flavor.xml shows a list of cupcake flavors as radio button options with a Next button.
  • fragment_pickup.xml provides an option to select pickup day and a Next button to go to the summary screen.
  • fragment_summary.xml displays a summary of the order details such as quantity, flavor and a button to send the order to another app.

Fragment classes:

  • StartFragment.kt is the first screen shown in the app. This class contains the view binding code and a click handler for the three buttons.
  • FlavorFragment.kt , PickupFragment.kt, and SummaryFragment.kt classes contain mostly boilerplate code and a click handler for the Next or Send Order to Another App button, which show a toast message.

Resources (res folder):

  • drawable folder contains the cupcake asset for the first screen, as well as the launcher icon files.
  • navigation/nav_graph.xml contains four fragment destinations (startFragment, flavorFragment, pickupFragment, and summaryFragment) without Actions, which you will define later in the codelab.
  • values folder contains the colors, dimensions, strings, styles, and themes used for customizing the app theme. You should be familiar with these resource types from previous codelabs.

In this task, you'll connect the screens of the Cupcake app together and finish implementing proper navigation within the app.

Do you remember what we need to use the Navigation component? Follow this guide for a refresher on how to set up your project and app to:

  • Include the Jetpack Navigation library
  • Add a NavHost to the activity
  • Create a navigation graph
  • Add fragment destinations to the navigation graph

Connect destinations in navigation graph

  1. In Android Studio, in the Project window, open res > navigation > nav_graph.xml file. Switch to the Design tab, if it's not already selected.

28c2c94eb97e2f0.png

  1. This opens the Navigation Editor to visualize the navigation graph in your app. You should see the four fragments that already exist in the app.

fdce89b318218ea6.png

  1. Connect the fragment destinations in the nav graph. Create an action from the startFragment to the flavorFragment, a connection from the flavorFragment to the pickupFragment, and a connection from the pickupFragment to the summaryFragment. Follow the next few steps if you need more detailed instructions.
  2. Hover over the startFragment until you see the gray border around the fragment and the gray circle appear over the center of the right edge of the fragment. Click on the circle and drag to the flavorFragment, and then release the mouse.

d014c1b710c1088d.png

  1. An arrow between the two fragments indicates a successful connection, meaning you will be able to navigate from the startFragment to the flavorFragment. This is called a Navigation action, which you have learned in a previous codelab.

65c7d993b98c9dea.png

  1. Similarly add navigation actions from flavorFragment to pickupFragment and from pickupFragment to summaryFragment. When you're done creating the navigation actions, the completed navigation graph should look like the following.

724eb8992a1a9381.png

  1. The three new actions you created should be reflected in the Component Tree pane as well.

e4ee54469f5ff1a4.png

  1. When you define a navigation graph, you also want to specify the start destination. Currently you can see that startFragment has a little house icon next to it.

739d4ddac561c478.png

That indicates that startFragment will be the first fragment to be shown in the NavHost. Leave this as the desired behavior for our app. For future reference, you can always change the start destination by right clicking on a fragment and selecting the menu option Set as Start Destination.

bf3cfa7841476892.png

Next, you will add code to navigate from startFragment to flavorFragment by tapping the buttons in the first fragment, instead of displaying a Toast message. Below is the reference of the start fragment layout. You will pass the quantity of cupcakes to the flavor fragment in a later task.

867d8e4c72078f76.png

  1. In the Project window, open the app > java > com.example.cupcake > StartFragment Kotlin file.
  2. In the onViewCreated() method, notice the click listeners are set on the three buttons. When each button is tapped, the orderCupcake() method is called with the quantity of cupcakes (either 1, 6, or 12 cupcakes) as its parameter.

Reference code:

orderOneCupcake.setOnClickListener { orderCupcake(1) }
orderSixCupcakes.setOnClickListener { orderCupcake(6) }
orderTwelveCupcakes.setOnClickListener { orderCupcake(12) }
  1. In the orderCupcake() method, replace the code displaying the toast message with the code to navigate to the flavor fragment. Get the NavController using findNavController() method and call navigate() on it, passing in the action ID, R.id.action_startFragment_to_flavorFragment. Make sure this action ID matches the action declared in your nav_graph.xml.

Replace

fun orderCupcake(quantity: Int) {
    Toast.makeText(activity, "Ordered $quantity cupcake(s)", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show()
}

with

fun orderCupcake(quantity: Int) {
   findNavController().navigate(R.id.action_startFragment_to_flavorFragment)
}
  1. Add the Import import androidx.navigation.fragment.findNavController or you can select from the options provided by Android Studio.

2a087f53a77765a6.png

Add Navigation to the flavor and pickup fragments

Similar to the previous task, in this task you will add the navigation to the other fragments: flavor and the pickup fragments.

3b351067bf4926b7.png

  1. Open app > java > com.example.cupcake > FlavorFragment.kt. Notice the method called within the Next button click listener is goToNextScreen() method.
  2. In FlavorFragment.kt, inside the goToNextScreen() method, replace the code displaying the toast to navigate to the pickup fragment. Use the action ID, R.id.action_flavorFragment_to_pickupFragmen and make sure this ID matches the action declared in your nav_graph.xml.
fun goToNextScreen() {
    findNavController().navigate(R.id.action_flavorFragment_to_pickupFragment)
}

Remember to import androidx.navigation.fragment.findNavController.

  1. Similarly in PickupFragment.kt, inside goToNextScreen() method, replace the existing code to navigate to the summary fragment.
fun goToNextScreen() {
    findNavController().navigate(R.id.action_pickupFragment_to_summaryFragment)
}

Import androidx.navigation.fragment.findNavController.

  1. Run the app. Make sure the buttons work to navigate from screen to screen. The information displayed on each fragment may be incomplete, but don't worry, you'll be populating those fragments with the correct data in upcoming steps.

96b33bf7a5bd8050.png

Update title in app bar

As you navigate through the app, notice the title in the app bar. It is always displayed as Cupcake.

It would be a better user experience to provide a more relevant title based on the functionality of the current fragment.

Change the title in the app bar (also known as action bar) for each fragment using the NavController and display an Up (←) button.

b7657cdc50cfeab0.png

  1. In MainActivity.kt, override the onCreate() method to set up the navigation controller. Get an instance of NavController from the NavHostFragment.
  2. Make a call to setupActionBarWithNavController(navController) passing in the instance of NavController. This will do the following: Show a title in the app bar based off of the destination's label, and display the Up button whenever you're not on a top-level destination.
class MainActivity : AppCompatActivity(R.layout.activity_main) {

    override fun onCreate(savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState)

        val navHostFragment = supportFragmentManager
                .findFragmentById(R.id.nav_host_fragment) as NavHostFragment
        val navController = navHostFragment.navController

        setupActionBarWithNavController(navController)
    }
}
  1. Add necessary imports when prompted by Android Studio.
import android.os.Bundle
import androidx.navigation.fragment.NavHostFragment
import androidx.navigation.ui.setupActionBarWithNavController
  1. Set the app bar titles for each fragment. Open navigataion/nav_graph.xml and switch to Code tab.
  2. In nav_graph.xml, modify the android:label attribute for each fragment destination. Use the following string resources that have already been declared in the starter app.

For start fragment, use @string/app_name with value Cupcake.

For flavor fragment, use @string/choose_flavor with value Choose Flavor.

For pickup fragment, use @string/choose_pickup_date with value Choose Pickup Date.

For summary fragment, use @string/order_summary with value Order Summary.

<navigation ...>
    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/startFragment"
        ...
        android:label="@string/app_name" ... >
        <action ... />
    </fragment>
    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/flavorFragment"
        ...
        android:label="@string/choose_flavor" ... >
        <action ... />
    </fragment>
    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/pickupFragment"
        ...
        android:label="@string/choose_pickup_date" ... >
        <action ... />
    </fragment>
    <fragment
        android:id="@+id/summaryFragment"
        ...
        android:label="@string/order_summary" ... />
</navigation>
  1. Run the app. Notice the title in the app bar changes as you navigate to each fragment destination. Also notice that the Up button (arrow ←) is now showing in the app bar. If you tap on it, it doesn't do anything. You will implement the Up button behavior in the next codelab.

dbd4108d6fdc637a.png

Let's move onto populating the correct data in each of the fragments. You'll be using a shared ViewModel to save the app's data in a single ViewModel. Multiple fragments in the app will access the shared ViewModel using their activity scope.

It is a common use case to share data between fragments in most production apps. For example in the final version(of this codelab) of the Cupcake app (notice the screenshots below), the user selects the quantity of cupcakes in the first screen, and in the second screen the price is calculated and displayed based on the quantity of the cupcakes. Similarly other app data such as flavor and pickup date are also used in summary screen.

3b6a68cab0b9ee2.png

From looking at the app features, you can reason that it would be useful to store this order information in a single ViewModel, which can be shared across the fragments in this activity. Recollect that ViewModel is a part of the Android Architecture Components. The app data saved within the ViewModel is retained during configuration changes. To add a ViewModel to your app, you create a new class that extends from the ViewModel class.

Create OrderViewModel

In this task, you will create a shared ViewModel for the Cupcake app called OrderViewModel. You will also add the app data as properties inside the ViewModel and methods to update and modify the data. Here are the properties of the class:

  • Order quantity (Integer)
  • Cupcake flavor (String)
  • Pickup date (String)
  • Price (Double)

Follow ViewModel best practices

In a ViewModel, it is a recommended practice to not expose view model data as public variables. Otherwise the app data can be modified in unexpected ways by the external classes and create edge cases your app didn't expect to handle. Instead, make these mutable properties private, implement a backing property, and expose a public immutable version of each property, if needed. The convention is to prefix the name of the private mutable properties with an underscore (_).

Here are the methods to update the properties above, depending on the user's choice:

  • setQuantity(numberCupcakes: Int)
  • setFlavor(desiredFlavor: String)
  • setDate(pickupDate: String)

You don't need a setter method for the price because you will calculate it within the OrderViewModel using other properties. The steps below walk you through how to implement the shared ViewModel.

You will create a new package in your project called model and add the OrderViewModel class. This will separate out the view model code from the rest of your UI code (fragments and activities). It is a coding best practice to separate code into packages depending on the functionality.

  1. In the Project window of Android Studio, right click on com.example.cupcake > New > Package.
  2. A New Package dialog will be opened, give the package name as com.example.cupcake.model.

d958ee5f3d2aef5a.png

  1. Create the OrderViewModel Kotlin class under the model package. In the Project window, right-click on the model package and select New > Kotlin File/Class. In the new dialog, give the filename OrderViewModel.

fc68c1d3861f1cca.png

  1. In OrderViewModel.kt, change the class signature to extend from ViewModel.
import androidx.lifecycle.ViewModel

class OrderViewModel : ViewModel() {

}
  1. Inside the OrderViewModel class, add the properties that were discussed above as private val.
  2. Change the property types to LiveData and add backing fields to the properties, so that these properties can be observable and UI can be updated when the source data in the view model changes.
private val _quantity = MutableLiveData<Int>(0)
val quantity: LiveData<Int> = _quantity

private val _flavor = MutableLiveData<String>("")
val flavor: LiveData<String> = _flavor

private val _date = MutableLiveData<String>("")
val date: LiveData<String> = _date

private val _price = MutableLiveData<Double>(0.0)
val price: LiveData<Double> = _price

You will need to import these classes:

import androidx.lifecycle.LiveData
import androidx.lifecycle.MutableLiveData
  1. In OrderViewModel class, add the methods that were discussed above. Inside the methods, assign the argument passed in to the mutable properties.
  2. Since these setter methods need to be called from outside the view model, leave them as public methods (meaning no private or other visibility modifier needed before the fun keyword). The default visibility modifier in Kotlin is public.
fun setQuantity(numberCupcakes: Int) {
    _quantity.value = numberCupcakes
}

fun setFlavor(desiredFlavor: String) {
    _flavor.value = desiredFlavor
}

fun setDate(pickupDate: String) {
    _date.value = pickupDate
}
  1. Build and run your app to make sure there are no compile errors. There should be no visible change in your UI yet.

Nice work! Now you have the start to your view model. You'll incrementally add more to this class as you build out more features in your app and realize you need more properties and methods in your class.

If you see the class names, property names, or method names in gray font in Android Studio, that's expected. That means the class, properties, or methods or not being used at the moment, but they will be! That's coming up next.

In this task, you will use the shared view model you created to update the app's UI. The main difference in the implementation of a shared view model is the way we access it from the UI controllers. You will use the activity instance instead of the fragment instance, and you will see how to do this in the coming sections.

That means the view model can be shared across fragments. Each fragment could access the view model to check on some detail of the order or update some data in the view model.

Update StartFragment to use view model

To use the shared view model in StartFragment you will initialize the OrderViewModel using activityViewModels() instead of viewModels() delegate class.

  • viewModels() gives you the ViewModel instance scoped to the current fragment. This will be different for different fragments.
  • activityViewModels() gives you the ViewModel instance scoped to the current activity. Therefore the instance will remain the same across multiple fragments in the same activity.

Use Kotlin property delegate

In Kotlin, each mutable (var) property has default getter and setter functions automatically generated for it. The setter and getter functions are called when you assign a value or read the value of the property. (For a read-only property (val), only the getter function is generated by default. This getter function is called when you read the value of a read-only property.)

Property delegation in Kotlin helps you to handoff the getter-setter responsibility to a different class.

This class (called delegate class) provides getter and setter functions of the property and handles its changes.

A delegate property is defined using the by clause and a delegate class instance:

// Syntax for property delegation
var <property-name> : <property-type> by <delegate-class>()
  1. In StartFragment class, get a reference to the shared view model as a class variable. Use the by activityViewModels() Kotlin property delegate from the fragment-ktx library.
private val sharedViewModel: OrderViewModel by activityViewModels()

You may need these new imports:

import androidx.fragment.app.activityViewModels
import com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel
  1. Repeat the above step for FlavorFragment, PickupFragment, SummaryFragment classes, you will use this sharedViewModel instance in later sections of the codelab.
  2. Going back to the StartFragment class, you can now use the view model. At the beginning of the orderCupcake() method, call the setQuantity()method in the shared view model to update quantity, before navigating to the flavor fragment.
fun orderCupcake(quantity: Int) {
    sharedViewModel.setQuantity(quantity)
    findNavController().navigate(R.id.action_startFragment_to_flavorFragment)
}
  1. Within the OrderViewModel class, add the following method to check if the flavor for the order has been set or not. You will use this method in the StartFragment class in a later step.
fun hasNoFlavorSet(): Boolean {
    return _flavor.value.isNullOrEmpty()
}
  1. In StartFragment class, inside orderCupcake() method, after setting the quantity, set the default flavor as Vanilla if no flavor is set, before navigating to the flavor fragment. Your complete method will look like this:
fun orderCupcake(quantity: Int) {
    sharedViewModel.setQuantity(quantity)
    if (sharedViewModel.hasNoFlavorSet()) {
        sharedViewModel.setFlavor(getString(R.string.vanilla))
    }
    findNavController().navigate(R.id.action_startFragment_to_flavorFragment)
}
  1. Build the app to make sure there are no compile errors. There should be no visible change in your UI though.

Next you will use data binding to bind the view model data to the UI. You will also update the shared view model based on the selections the user makes in the UI.

Refresher on Data binding

Recall that the Data Binding Library is a part of Android Jetpack. Data binding binds the UI components in your layouts to data sources in your app using a declarative format. In simpler terms, data binding is binding data (from code) to views + view binding (binding views to code). By setting up these bindings and having updates be automatic, this helps you reduce the chance for errors if you forget to manually update the UI from your code.

Update flavor with user choice

  1. In layout/fragment_flavor.xml, add a <data> tag inside the root <layout> tag. Add a layout variable called viewModel of the type com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel. Make sure the package name in the type attribute matches with the package name of the shared view model class, OrderViewModel in your app.
<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            name="viewModel"
            type="com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>

    ...
  1. Similarly, repeat the above step for fragment_pickup.xml, and fragment_summary.xml to add the viewModel layout variable. You will use this variable in later sections. You don't need to add this code in fragment_start.xml, because this layout doesn't use the shared view model.
  2. In the FlavorFragment class, inside onViewCreated(), bind the view model instance with the shared view model instance in the layout. Add the following code inside the binding?.apply block.
binding?.apply {
    viewModel = sharedViewModel
    ...
}

Apply scope function

This may be the first time you're seeing the apply function in Kotlin. apply is a scope function in the Kotlin standard library. It executes a block of code within the context of an object. It forms a temporary scope, and in that scope, you can access the object without its name. The common use case for apply is to configure an object. Such calls can be read as "apply the following assignments to the object."

Example:

clark.apply {
    firstName = "Clark"
    lastName = "James"
    age = 18
}

// The equivalent code without apply scope function would look like the following.

clark.firstName = "Clark"
clark.lastName = "James"
clark.age = 18
  1. Repeat the same step for the onViewCreated()method inside the PickupFragment and SummaryFragment classes.
binding?.apply {
    viewModel = sharedViewModel
    ...
}
  1. In fragment_flavor.xml, use the new layout variable, viewModel to set the checked attribute of the radio buttons based on the flavor value in the view model. If the flavor represented by a radio button is the same as the flavor that's saved in the view model, then display the radio button as selected (checked = true). The binding expression for the checked state of the Vanilla RadioButton would look like the following:

@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/vanilla)}

Essentially, you are comparing the viewModel.flavor property with the corresponding string resource using the equals function, to determine if the checked state should be true or false.

<RadioGroup
   ...>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/vanilla"
       ...
       android:checked="@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/vanilla)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/chocolate"
       ...
       android:checked="@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/chocolate)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/red_velvet"
       ...
       android:checked="@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/red_velvet)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/salted_caramel"
       ...
       android:checked="@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/salted_caramel)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/coffee"
       ...
       android:checked="@{viewModel.flavor.equals(@string/coffee)}"
       .../>
</RadioGroup>

Listener bindings

Listener bindings are lambda expressions that run when an event happens, such as an onClick event. They are similar to method references such as textview.setOnClickListener(clickListener) but listener bindings let you run arbitrary data binding expressions.

  1. In fragment_flavor.xml, add event listeners to the radio buttons using listener bindings. Use a lambda expression with no parameters and make a call to the viewModel.setFlavor() method by passing in the corresponding flavor string resource.
<RadioGroup
   ...>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/vanilla"
       ...
       android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setFlavor(@string/vanilla)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/chocolate"
       ...
       android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setFlavor(@string/chocolate)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/red_velvet"
       ...
       android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setFlavor(@string/red_velvet)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/salted_caramel"
       ...
       android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setFlavor(@string/salted_caramel)}"
       .../>

   <RadioButton
       android:id="@+id/coffee"
       ...
       android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setFlavor(@string/coffee)}"
       .../>
</RadioGroup>
  1. Run the app and notice how the Vanilla option is selected by default in the flavor fragment.

3095e824b4817b98.png

Great! Now you can move onto the next fragments.

Navigate through the app and notice that in the pickup fragment, the radio button option labels are blank. In this task, you will calculate the 4 pickup dates available and display them in the pickup fragment. There are different ways to display a formatted date, and here are some helpful utilities provided by Android to do this.

Create pickup options list

Date formatter

The Android framework provides a class called SimpleDateFormat, which is a class for formatting and parsing dates in a locale-sensitive manner. It allows for formatting (date → text) and parsing (text → date) of dates.

You can create an instance of SimpleDateFormat by passing in a pattern string and a locale:

SimpleDateFormat("E MMM d", Locale.getDefault())

A pattern string like "E MMM d" is a representation of Date and Time formats. Letters from 'A' to 'Z' and from 'a' to 'z' are interpreted as pattern letters representing the components of a date or time string. For example, d represents day in a month, y for year and M for month. If the date is January 4 in 2018, the pattern string "EEE, MMM d" parses to "Wed, Jul 4". For a complete list of pattern letters, please see the documentation.

A Locale object represents a specific geographical, political, or cultural region. It represents a language/country/variant combination. Locales are used to alter the presentation of information such as numbers or dates to suit the conventions in the region. Date and time are locale-sensitive, because they are written differently in different parts of the world. You will use the method Locale.getDefault() to retrieve the locale information set on the user's device and pass it into the SimpleDateFormat constructor.

Locale in Android is a combination of language and country code. The language codes are two-letter lowercase ISO language codes, such as "en" for english. The country codes are two-letter uppercase ISO country codes, such as "US" for the United States.

Now use SimpleDateFormat and Locale to determine the available pickup dates for the Cupcake app.

  1. In OrderViewModel class, add the following function called getPickupOptions() to create and return the list of pickup dates. Within the method, create a val variable called options and initialize it to mutableListOf<String>().
private fun getPickupOptions(): List<String> {
   val options = mutableListOf<String>()
}
  1. Create a formatter string using SimpleDateFormat passing pattern string "E MMM d", and the locale. In the pattern string, E stands for day name in week and it parses to "Tue Dec 10".
val formatter = SimpleDateFormat("E MMM d", Locale.getDefault())

Import java.text.SimpleDateFormat and java.util.Locale, when prompted by Android Studio.

  1. Get a Calendar instance and assign it to a new variable. Make it a val. This variable will contain the current date and time. Also, import java.util.Calendar.
val calendar = Calendar.getInstance()
  1. Build up a list of dates starting with the current date and the following three dates. Because you'll need 4 date options, repeat this block of code 4 times. This repeat block will format a date, add it to the list of date options, and then increment the calendar by 1 day.
repeat(4) {
    options.add(formatter.format(calendar.time))
    calendar.add(Calendar.DATE, 1)
}
  1. Return the updated options at the end of the method. Here is your completed method:
private fun getPickupOptions(): List<String> {
   val options = mutableListOf<String>()
   val formatter = SimpleDateFormat("E MMM d", Locale.getDefault())
   val calendar = Calendar.getInstance()
   // Create a list of dates starting with the current date and the following 3 dates
   repeat(4) {
       options.add(formatter.format(calendar.time))
       calendar.add(Calendar.DATE, 1)
   }
   return options
}
  1. In OrderViewModel class, add a class property called dateOptions that's a val. Initialize it using the getPickupOptions() method you just created.
val dateOptions = getPickupOptions()

Update the layout to display pickup options

Now that you have the four available pickup dates in the view model, update the PickupFragment to display these dates. You will also use data binding to display the checked status of each radio button and to update the date in the view model when a different radio button is selected. This implementation is similar to the data binding in the flavor fragment.

In fragment_pickup.xml:

Radio button option0 represents dateOptions[0] in viewModel (today)

Radio button option1 represents dateOptions[1] in viewModel (tomorrow)

Radio button option2 represents dateOptions[2] in viewModel (the day after tomorrow)

Radio button option3 represents dateOptions[3] in viewModel (two days after tomorrow)

  1. In fragment_pickup.xml, for the option0 radio button, use the new layout variable, viewModel to set the checked attribute based on the date value in the view model. Compare the viewModel.date property with the first string in the dateOptions list, which is the current date. Use the equals function to compare and the final binding expression looks like the following:

@{viewModel.date.equals(viewModel.dateOptions[0])}

  1. For the same radio button, add an event listener using listener binding to the onClick attribute. When this radio button option is clicked, make a call to setDate() on viewModel, passing in dateOptions[0].
  2. For the same radio button, set the text attribute value to the first string in the dateOptions list.
<RadioButton
   android:id="@+id/option0"
   ...
   android:checked="@{viewModel.date.equals(viewModel.dateOptions[0])}"
   android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setDate(viewModel.dateOptions[0])}"
   android:text="@{viewModel.dateOptions[0]}"
   ...
   />
  1. Repeat the above steps for the other radio buttons, change the index of the dateOptions accordingly.
<RadioButton
   android:id="@+id/option1"
   ...
   android:checked="@{viewModel.date.equals(viewModel.dateOptions[1])}"
   android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setDate(viewModel.dateOptions[1])}"
   android:text="@{viewModel.dateOptions[1]}"
   ... />

<RadioButton
   android:id="@+id/option2"
   ...
   android:checked="@{viewModel.date.equals(viewModel.dateOptions[2])}"
   android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setDate(viewModel.dateOptions[2])}"
   android:text="@{viewModel.dateOptions[2]}"
   ... />

<RadioButton
   android:id="@+id/option3"
   ...
   android:checked="@{viewModel.date.equals(viewModel.dateOptions[3])}"
   android:onClick="@{() -> viewModel.setDate(viewModel.dateOptions[3])}"
   android:text="@{viewModel.dateOptions[3]}"
   ... />
  1. Run the app and you should see the next few days as pickup options available. Your screenshot will differ depending on what the current day is for you. Notice that there is no option selected by default. You will implement this in the next step.

b55b3a36e2aa7be6.png

  1. Within the OrderViewModel class, create a function called resetOrder(), to reset the MutableLiveData properties in the view model. Assign the current date value from the dateOptions list to _date.value.
fun resetOrder() {
   _quantity.value = 0
   _flavor.value = ""
   _date.value = dateOptions[0]
   _price.value = 0.0
}
  1. Add an init block to the class, and call the new method resetOrder() from it.
init {
   resetOrder()
}
  1. Remove the initial values from the declaration of the properties in the class. Now you are using the init block to initialize the properties when an instance of OrderViewModel is created.
private val _quantity = MutableLiveData<Int>()
val quantity: LiveData<Int> = _quantity

private val _flavor = MutableLiveData<String>()
val flavor: LiveData<String> = _flavor

private val _date = MutableLiveData<String>()
val date: LiveData<String> = _date

private val _price = MutableLiveData<Double>()
val price: LiveData<Double> = _price
  1. Run your app again, notice today's date is selected by default.

bfe4f1b82977b4bc.png

Update Summary fragment to use view model

Now let's move onto the last fragment. The order summary fragment is intended to show a summary of the order details. In this task, you take advantage of all the order information from the shared view model and update the onscreen order details using data binding.

78f510e10d848dd2.png

  1. In fragment_summary.xml, make sure you have the view model data variable, viewModel declared.
<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            name="viewModel"
            type="com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>

    ...
  1. In SummaryFragment, in onViewCreated(), make sure binding.viewModel is initialized.
  2. In fragment_summary.xml, read from the view model to update the screen with the order summary details. Update the quantity, flavor, and date TextViews by adding the following text attributes. Quantity is of the type Int, so you need to convert it to a string.
<TextView
   android:id="@+id/quantity"
   ...
   android:text="@{viewModel.quantity.toString()}"
   ... />
<TextView
   android:id="@+id/flavor"
   ...
   android:text="@{viewModel.flavor}"
   ... />
<TextView
   android:id="@+id/date"
   ...
   android:text="@{viewModel.date}"
   ... />
  1. Run and test the app to verify that the order options you selected show up in the order summary.

7091453fa817b55.png

Looking at the final app screenshots of this codelab, you'll notice that the price is actually displayed on each fragment (except the StartFragment) so the user knows the price as they create the order.

3b6a68cab0b9ee2.png

Here are the rules from our cupcake shop on how to calculate price.

  • Each cupcake is $2.00 each
  • Same day pickup adds an extra $3.00 to the order

Hence, for an order of 6 cupcakes, the price would be 6 cupcakes x $2 each = $12. If the user wants same day pickup, the extra $3 cost would lead to a total order price of $15.

Update price in view model

To add support for this functionality in your app, first tackle the price per cupcake and ignore the same day pickup cost for now.

  1. Open OrderViewModel.kt, and store the price per cupcake in a variable. Declare it as a top-level private constant at the top of the file, outside the class definition (but after the import statements). Use the const modifier and to make it read-only use val.
package ...

import ...

private const val PRICE_PER_CUPCAKE = 2.00

class OrderViewModel : ViewModel() {
    ... 

Recollect that constant values (marked with the const keyword in Kotlin) do not change and the value is known at compile time. To learn more about constants, check out the documentation.

  1. Now that you have defined a price per cupcake, create a helper method to calculate the price. This method can be private because it's only used within this class. You will change the price logic to include same day pickup charges in the next task.
private fun updatePrice() {
    _price.value = (quantity.value ?: 0) * PRICE_PER_CUPCAKE
}

This line of code multiplies the price per cupcake by the quantity of cupcakes ordered. For the code in parentheses, since the value of quantity.value could be null, use an elvis operator (?:) . The elvis operator (?:) means that if the expression on the left is not null, then use it. Otherwise if the expression on the left is null, then use the expression to the right of the elvis operator (which is 0 in this case).

  1. In the same OrderViewModel class, update the price variable when the quantity is set. Make a call to the new function in the setQuantity() function.
fun setQuantity(numberCupcakes: Int) {
    _quantity.value = numberCupcakes
    updatePrice()
}

Bind the price property to the UI

  1. In the layouts for fragment_flavor.xml, fragment_pickup.xml, and fragment_summary.xml, make sure the data variable viewModel of type com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel is defined.
<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            name="viewModel"
            type="com.example.cupcake.model.OrderViewModel" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>

    ...
  1. In the onViewCreated() method of each fragment class, make sure you bind the view model object instance in the fragment to the view model data variable in the layout.
binding?.apply {
    viewModel = sharedViewModel
    ...
}
  1. Within each fragment layout, use the viewModel variable to set the price if it's shown in the layout. Start with modifying the fragment_flavor.xml file. For the subtotal text view, set the value of the android:text attribute to be "@{@string/subtotal_price(viewModel.price)}". This data binding layout expression uses the string resource @string/subtotal_price and passes in a parameter, which is the price from the view model, so the output will show Subtotal 12.0 for example.
...

<TextView
    android:id="@+id/subtotal"
    android:text="@{@string/subtotal_price(viewModel.price)}" 
    ... />

...

You're using this string resource that was already declared in the strings.xml file:

<string name="subtotal_price">Subtotal %s</string>
  1. Run the app. If you select One cupcake in the start fragment, the flavor fragment will show Subtotal 2.0. If you select Six cupcakes, the flavor fragment will show Subtotal 12.0, and etc... You will format the price into the proper currency format later, so this behavior is expected for now.

  1. Now make a similar change for the pickup and summary fragments. In fragment_pickup.xml and fragment_summary.xml layouts, modify the text views to use the viewModel price property as well.

fragment_pickup.xml

...

<TextView
    android:id="@+id/subtotal"
    ...
    android:text="@{@string/subtotal_price(viewModel.price)}" 
    ... />

...

fragment_summary.xml

...

<TextView
   android:id="@+id/total"
   ...
   android:text="@{@string/total_price(viewModel.price)}" 
   ... />

...

  1. Run the app. Make sure the price shown in the order summary is calculated correctly for an order quantity of 1, 6, and 12 cupcakes. As mentioned, it's expected that the price formatting isn't correct at the moment (it'll show up as 2.0 for $2 or 12.0 for $12).

Charge extra for same day pickup

In this task, you will implement the second rule which is that same day pickup adds an extra $3.00 to the order.

  1. In OrderViewModel class, define a new top-level private constant for the same day pickup cost.
private const val PRICE_FOR_SAME_DAY_PICKUP = 3.00
  1. In updatePrice(), check if the user selected the same day pickup. Check if the date in the view model (_date.value) is the same as the first item in the dateOptions list which is always the current day.
private fun updatePrice() {
    _price.value = (quantity.value ?: 0) * PRICE_PER_CUPCAKE
    if (dateOptions[0] == _date.value) {
       
    }
}
  1. To make these calculations simpler, introduce a temporary variable, calculatedPrice. Calculate the updated price and assign it back to _price.value.
private fun updatePrice() {
    var calculatedPrice = (quantity.value ?: 0) * PRICE_PER_CUPCAKE
    // If the user selected the first option (today) for pickup, add the surcharge
    if (dateOptions[0] == _date.value) {
        calculatedPrice += PRICE_FOR_SAME_DAY_PICKUP
    }
    _price.value = calculatedPrice
}
  1. Call updatePrice() helper method from setDate() method to add the same day pickup charges.
fun setDate(pickupDate: String) {
    _date.value = pickupDate
    updatePrice()
}
  1. Run your app, navigate through the app. You will notice that changing the pickup date does not remove the same day pickup charges from the total price. This is because the price is changed in the view model but it is not notified to the binding layout.

2ea8e000fb4e6ec8.png

Set Lifecycle owner to observe LiveData

LifecycleOwner is a class that has an Android lifecycle, such as an activity or a fragment. A LiveData observer observes the changes to the app's data only if the lifecycle owner is in active states (STARTED or RESUMED).

In your app, the LiveData object or the observable data is the price property in the view model. The lifecycle owners are the flavor, pickup and the summary fragments. The LiveData observers are the binding expressions in layout files with observable data like price. With Data Binding, when an observable value changes, the UI elements it's bound to are updated automatically.

Example of binding expression: android:text="@{@string/subtotal_price(viewModel.price)}"

For the UI elements to automatically update, you have to associate binding.lifecycleOwner

with the lifecycle owners in the app. You will implement this next.

  1. In the FlavorFragment, PickupFragment, SummaryFragment classes, inside the onViewCreated() method, add the following in the binding?.apply block. This will set the lifecycle owner on the binding object. By setting the lifecycle owner, the app will be able to observe LiveData objects.
binding?.apply {   
    lifecycleOwner = viewLifecycleOwner
    ...
}
  1. Run your app again. In the pickup screen, change the pickup date and notice the difference in how the price changes automatically. And the pick up charges are correctly reflected in the summary screen.
  2. Notice that when you select today's date for pickup, the price of the order is increased by $3.00. The price for selecting any future date should still be the quantity of cupcakes x $2.00.

  1. Test different cases with different cupcake quantities, flavors, and pickup dates. Now you should see the price updating from the view model on each fragment. The best part is that you didn't have to write extra Kotlin code to keep the UI updated with the price each time.

f4c0a3c5ea916d03.png

To finish implementing the price feature, you'll need to format the price to the local currency.

Format price with LiveData transformation

The LiveData transformation method(s) provides a way to perform data manipulations on the source LiveData and return a resulting LiveData object. In simple terms, it transforms the value of LiveData into another value. These transformations aren't calculated unless an observer is observing the LiveData object.

The Transformations.map() is one of the transformation functions, this method takes the source LiveData and a function as parameters. The function manipulates the source LiveData and returns an updated value which is also observable.

Some real-time examples where you may use a LiveData transformation:

  • Format date, time strings for display
  • Sorting a list of items
  • Filtering or grouping the items
  • Calculate the result from a list like sum of all the items, number of items, return the last item, and so on.

In this task, you will use Transformations.map() method to format the price to use the local currency. You'll transform the original price as a decimal value (LiveData<Double>) into a string value (LiveData<String>).

  1. In OrderViewModel class, change the backing property type to LiveData<String> instead of LiveData<Double>. The formatted price will be a string with a currency symbol such as a ‘$'. You will fix the initialization error in the next step.
private val _price = MutableLiveData<Double>()
val price: LiveData<String> 
  1. Use Transformations.map() to initialize the new variable, pass in the _price and a lambda function. Use getCurrencyInstance() method in the NumberFormat class to convert the price to local currency format. The transformation code will look like this.
private val _price = MutableLiveData<Double>()
val price: LiveData<String> = Transformations.map(_price) {
   NumberFormat.getCurrencyInstance().format(it)
}

You'll need to import androidx.lifecycle.Transformations and java.text.NumberFormat.

  1. Run the app. Now you should see the formatted price string for subtotal and total. This is much more user-friendly!

1853bd13a07f1bc7.png

  1. Test that it works as expected. Test cases like: Order one cupcake, order six cupcakes, order 12 cupcakes. Make sure the price is correctly updated on each screen. It should say Subtotal $2.00 for the Flavor and Pickup fragments, and Total $2.00 for the order summary. Also, make sure the order summary shows the correct order details.

In this task, you will use listener binding to bind the button click listeners in the fragment classes to the layout.

  1. In the layout file fragment_start.xml, add a data variable called startFragment of the type com.example.cupcake.StartFragment. Make sure the package name of the fragment matches with your app's package name.
<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            name="startFragment"
            type="com.example.cupcake.StartFragment" />
    </data>
    ... 
    <ScrollView ...>
  1. In StartFragment.kt, in onViewCreated() method, bind the new data variable to the fragment instance. You can access the fragment instance inside the fragment using this keyword. Remove the binding?.apply block and along with the code within. The completed method should look like this.
override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)
    binding?.startFragment = this
}
  1. In fragment_start.xml, add event listeners using listener binding to the onClick attribute for the buttons, make a call to orderCupcake() on startFragment, passing in the number of cupcakes.
<Button
    android:id="@+id/order_one_cupcake"
    android:onClick="@{() -> startFragment.orderCupcake(1)}" 
    ... />

<Button
    android:id="@+id/order_six_cupcakes"
    android:onClick="@{() -> startFragment.orderCupcake(6)}" 
    ... />

<Button
    android:id="@+id/order_twelve_cupcakes"
    android:onClick="@{() -> startFragment.orderCupcake(12)}" 
    ... />
  1. Run the app. Notice the button click handlers in the start fragment are working as expected.
  2. Similarly add the above data variable in other layouts as well to bind the fragment instance, fragment_flavor.xml, fragment_pickup.xml, and fragment_summary.xml.

In fragment_flavor.xml

<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            ... />

        <variable
            name="flavorFragment"
            type="com.example.cupcake.FlavorFragment" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>

In fragment_pickup.xml:

<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            ... />

        <variable
            name="pickupFragment"
            type="com.example.cupcake.PickupFragment" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>

In fragment_summary.xml:

<layout ...>

    <data>
        <variable
            ... />

        <variable
            name="summaryFragment"
            type="com.example.cupcake.SummaryFragment" />
    </data>

    <ScrollView ...>
  1. In the rest of the fragment classes, in onViewCreated() methods, delete the code that manually sets the click listener on the buttons.
  2. In the onViewCreated() methods bind the fragment data variable with the fragment instance. You will use this keyword differently here, because inside the binding?.apply block, the keyword this refers to the binding instance, not the fragment instance. Use @ and explicitly specify the fragment class name, for example this@FlavorFragment. The completed onViewCreated() methods should look as follows:

The onViewCreated() method in FlavorFragment class should look like this:

override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
    super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

    binding?.apply {
        lifecycleOwner = viewLifecycleOwner
        viewModel = sharedViewModel
        flavorFragment = this@FlavorFragment
    }
}

The onViewCreated() method in PickupFragment class should look like this:

override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
   super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

   binding?.apply {
       lifecycleOwner = viewLifecycleOwner
       viewModel = sharedViewModel
       pickupFragment = this@PickupFragment
   }
}

The resulting onViewCreated() method in SummaryFragment class method should look like this:

override fun onViewCreated(view: View, savedInstanceState: Bundle?) {
   super.onViewCreated(view, savedInstanceState)

   binding?.apply {
       lifecycleOwner = viewLifecycleOwner
       viewModel = sharedViewModel
       summaryFragment = this@SummaryFragment
   }
}
  1. Similarly in the other layout files, add listener binding expressions to the onClick attribute for the buttons.

In fragment_flavor.xml:

<Button
    android:id="@+id/next_button"
    android:onClick="@{() -> flavorFragment.goToNextScreen()}" 
    ... />

In fragment_pickup.xml:

<Button
    android:id="@+id/next_button"
    android:onClick="@{() -> pickupFragment.goToNextScreen()}" 
    ... />

In fragment_summary.xml:

<Button
    android:id="@+id/send_button"
    android:onClick="@{() -> summaryFragment.sendOrder()}"
    ...>
  1. Run the app to verify the buttons still work as expected. There should be no visible change in behavior, but now you've used listener bindings to set up the click listeners!

Congratulations on completing this codelab and building out the Cupcake app! However, the app is not quite done yet. In the next codelab, you will add a Cancel button and modify the backstack. You will also learn what is a backstack and other new topics. See you there!

The solution code for this codelab is in the project shown below. Use the viewmodel branch to pull or download the code.

To get the code for this codelab and open it in Android Studio, do the following.

Get the code

  1. Click on the provided URL. This opens the GitHub page for the project in a browser.
  2. On the GitHub page for the project, click the Code button, which brings up a dialog.

Eme2bJP46u-pMpnXVfm-bS2N2dlyq6c0jn1DtQYqBaml7TUhzXDWpYoDI0lGKi4xndE_uJw8sKfwfOZ1fC503xCVZrbh10JKJ4iEHdLDwFfdvnOheNxkokITW1LW6UZTncVJJUZ5Fw

  1. In the dialog, click the Download ZIP button to save the project to your computer. Wait for the download to complete.
  2. Locate the file on your computer (likely in the Downloads folder).
  3. Double-click the ZIP file to unpack it. This creates a new folder that contains the project files.

Open the project in Android Studio

  1. Start Android Studio.
  2. In the Welcome to Android Studio window, click Open an existing Android Studio project.

Tdjf5eS2nCikM9KdHgFaZNSbIUCzKXP6WfEaKVE2Oz1XIGZhgTJYlaNtXTHPFU1xC9pPiaD-XOPdIxVxwZAK8onA7eJyCXz2Km24B_8rpEVI_Po5qlcMNN8s4Tkt6kHEXdLQTDW7mg

Note: If Android Studio is already open, instead, select the File > New > Import Project menu option.

PaMkVnfCxQqSNB1LxPpC6C6cuVCAc8jWNZCqy5tDVA6IO3NE2fqrfJ6p6ggGpk7jd27ybXaWU7rGNOFi6CvtMyHtWdhNzdAHmndzvEdwshF_SG24Le01z7925JsFa47qa-Q19t3RxQ

  1. In the Import Project dialog, navigate to where the unzipped project folder is located (likely in your Downloads folder).
  2. Double-click on that project folder.
  3. Wait for Android Studio to open the project.
  4. Click the Run button j7ptomO2PEQNe8jFt4nKCOw_Oc_Aucgf4l_La8fGLCMLy0t9RN9SkmBFGOFjkEzlX4ce2w2NWq4J30sDaxEe4MaSNuJPpMgHxnsRYoBtIV3-GUpYYcIvRJ2HrqR27XGuTS4F7lKCzg to build and run the app. Make sure it works as expected.
  5. Browse the project files in the Project tool window to see how the app was implemented.
  • The ViewModel is a part of the Android Architecture Components and the app data saved within the ViewModel is retained during configuration changes. To add a ViewModel to your app, you create a new class and extend it from the ViewModel class.
  • Shared ViewModel is used to save the app's data from multiple fragments in a single ViewModel. Multiple fragments in the app will access the shared ViewModel using their activity scope.
  • LifecycleOwner is a class that has an Android lifecycle, such as an activity or a fragment.
  • LiveData observer observes the changes to the app's data only if the lifecycle owner is in active states (STARTED or RESUMED).
  • Listener bindings are lambda expressions that run when an event happens such as an onClick event. They are similar to method references such as textview.setOnClickListener(clickListener) but listener bindings let you run arbitrary data binding expressions.
  • The LiveData transformation method(s) provides a way to perform data manipulations on the source LiveData and return a resulting LiveData object.
  • Android frameworks provides a class called SimpleDateFormat, a class for formatting and parsing dates in a locale-sensitive manner. It allows for formatting (date → text) and parsing (text → date) dates.