Perubahan perilaku: Aplikasi yang menargetkan Android 14 atau yang lebih tinggi

Seperti rilis sebelumnya, Android 14 menyertakan perubahan perilaku yang dapat memengaruhi aplikasi Anda. Perubahan perilaku berikut ini berlaku khusus bagi aplikasi yang menargetkan Android 14 atau yang lebih tinggi. Jika aplikasi menargetkan Android 14 atau yang lebih tinggi, Anda harus memodifikasi aplikasi untuk mendukung perilaku ini dengan benar, jika berlaku.

Pastikan Anda meninjau daftar perubahan perilaku yang memengaruhi semua aplikasi yang berjalan di Android 14, terlepas dari targetSdkVersion aplikasi.

Fungsi inti

Jenis layanan latar depan wajib diisi

If your app targets Android 14, it must specify at least one foreground service type for each foreground service within your app. You should choose a foreground service type that represents your app's use case. The system expects foreground services that have a particular type to satisfy a particular use case.

If a use case in your app isn't associated with any of these types, it's strongly recommended that you migrate your logic to use WorkManager or user-initiated data transfer jobs.

Update OpenJDK 17

Android 14 continues the work of refreshing Android's core libraries to align with the features in the latest OpenJDK LTS releases, including both library updates and Java 17 language support for app and platform developers.

A few of these changes can affect app compatibility:

  • Changes to regular expressions: Invalid group references are now disallowed to more closely follow the semantics of OpenJDK. You might see new cases where an IllegalArgumentException is thrown by the java.util.regex.Matcher class, so make sure to test your app for areas that use regular expressions. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the DISALLOW_INVALID_GROUP_REFERENCE flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • UUID handling: The java.util.UUID.fromString() method now does more strict checks when validating the input argument, so you might see an IllegalArgumentException during deserialization. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the ENABLE_STRICT_VALIDATION flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • ProGuard issues: In some cases, the addition of the java.lang.ClassValue class causes an issue if you try to shrink, obfuscate, and optimize your app using ProGuard. The problem originates with a Kotlin library that changes runtime behaviour based on whether Class.forName("java.lang.ClassValue") returns a class or not. If your app was developed against an older version of the runtime without the java.lang.ClassValue class available, then these optimizations might remove the computeValue method from classes derived from java.lang.ClassValue.


Pembatasan ke intent yang implisit dan tertunda

Untuk aplikasi yang menargetkan Android 14, Android membatasi pengiriman intent implisit ke komponen aplikasi internal dengan cara berikut:

  • Intent implisit hanya dikirim ke komponen yang diekspor. Aplikasi harus menggunakan intent eksplisit untuk mengirim ke komponen yang tidak diekspor, atau menandai komponen sebagai diekspor.
  • Jika aplikasi membuat intent tertunda yang dapat berubah dengan intent yang tidak menentukan komponen atau paket, sistem kini akan menampilkan pengecualian.

Perubahan ini mencegah aplikasi berbahaya agar tidak mencegat intent implisit yang dimaksudkan untuk digunakan oleh komponen internal aplikasi.

Misalnya, berikut ini filter intent yang dapat dideklarasikan dalam file manifes aplikasi:

        <action android:name="com.example.action.APP_ACTION" />
        <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />

Jika aplikasi Anda mencoba meluncurkan aktivitas ini menggunakan intent implisit, pengecualian akan ditampilkan:


// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.


// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"));

Untuk meluncurkan aktivitas yang tidak diekspor, aplikasi Anda harus menggunakan intent eksplisit:


// This makes the intent explicit.
val explicitIntent =
explicitIntent.apply {
    package = context.packageName


// This makes the intent explicit.
Intent explicitIntent =
        new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")

Penerima siaran yang terdaftar runtime harus menentukan perilaku ekspor

Apps and services that target Android 14 and use context-registered receivers are required to specify a flag to indicate whether or not the receiver should be exported to all other apps on the device: either RECEIVER_EXPORTED or RECEIVER_NOT_EXPORTED, respectively. This requirement helps protect apps from security vulnerabilities by leveraging the features for these receivers introduced in Android 13.

Exception for receivers that receive only system broadcasts

If your app is registering a receiver only for system broadcasts through Context#registerReceiver methods, such as Context#registerReceiver(), then it shouldn't specify a flag when registering the receiver.

Pemuatan kode dinamis yang lebih aman

If your app targets Android 14 and uses Dynamic Code Loading (DCL), all dynamically-loaded files must be marked as read-only. Otherwise, the system throws an exception. We recommend that apps avoid dynamically loading code whenever possible, as doing so greatly increases the risk that an app can be compromised by code injection or code tampering.

If you must dynamically load code, use the following approach to set the dynamically-loaded file (such as a DEX, JAR, or APK file) as read-only as soon as the file is opened and before any content is written:


val jar = File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar")
val os = FileOutputStream(jar)
os.use {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    // Then write the actual file content
val cl = PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader)


File jar = new File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar");
try (FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(jar)) {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    // Then write the actual file content
} catch (IOException e) { ... }
PathClassLoader cl = new PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader);

Handle dynamically-loaded files that already exist

To prevent exceptions from being thrown for existing dynamically-loaded files, we recommend deleting and recreating the files before you try to dynamically load them again in your app. As you recreate the files, follow the preceding guidance for marking the files read-only at write time. Alternatively, you can re-label the existing files as read-only, but in this case, we strongly recommend that you verify the integrity of the files first (for example, by checking the file's signature against a trusted value), to help protect your app from malicious actions.

Zip path traversal

For apps targeting Android 14, Android prevents the Zip Path Traversal Vulnerability in the following way: ZipFile(String) and ZipInputStream.getNextEntry() throws a ZipException if zip file entry names contain ".." or start with "/".

Apps can opt-out from this validation by calling dalvik.system.ZipPathValidator.clearCallback().

Batasan tambahan dalam memulai aktivitas dari latar belakang

For apps targeting Android 14, the system further restricts when apps are allowed to start activities from the background:

These changes expand the existing set of restrictions to protect users by preventing malicious apps from abusing APIs to start disruptive activities from the background.

Pembatasan non-SDK yang diperbarui

Android 14 includes updated lists of restricted non-SDK interfaces based on collaboration with Android developers and the latest internal testing. Whenever possible, we make sure that public alternatives are available before we restrict non-SDK interfaces.

If your app does not target Android 14, some of these changes might not immediately affect you. However, while you can currently use some non-SDK interfaces (depending on your app's target API level), using any non-SDK method or field always carries a high risk of breaking your app.

If you are unsure if your app uses non-SDK interfaces, you can test your app to find out. If your app relies on non-SDK interfaces, you should begin planning a migration to SDK alternatives. Nevertheless, we understand that some apps have valid use cases for using non-SDK interfaces. If you cannot find an alternative to using a non-SDK interface for a feature in your app, you should request a new public API.

To learn more about the changes in this release of Android, see Updates to non-SDK interface restrictions in Android 14. To learn more about non-SDK interfaces generally, see Restrictions on non-SDK interfaces.