Multiprocess Espresso

As your app grows, you might find it useful to place some of your app components in a process other than your app's main process. To test app components in these non-default processes, you can use the functionality of Multiprocess Espresso. This tool, available on Android 8.0 (API level 26) and higher, allows you to seamlessly test your app's UI interactions that cross your app's process boundaries while maintaining Espresso's synchronization guarantees.

When using Multiprocess Espresso, keep the following versioning and scope considerations in mind:

  • Your app must target Android 8.0 (API level 26) or higher.
  • The tool can only test app components that you include in processes within your app's package. It cannot test external processes.

Use the tool

To test a process within your app using Multiprocess Espresso, add a reference to the espresso-remote artifact in your app's build.gradle file:



dependencies {
    androidTestImplementation 'androidx.test.espresso:espresso-remote:3.4.0'


dependencies {

You also need to add the following to your app's androidTest manifest:

  • An <instrumentation> element that defines the process.
  • A <meta-data> element indicating that you want to use Multiprocess Espresso.

The following code snippet shows how to add these elements:


<manifest ... package="androidx.test.mytestapp.tests">
  <uses-sdk android:targetSdkVersion="27" android:minSdkVersion="14" />
      android:value="androidx.test.espresso.remote.EspressoRemote#remoteInit" />

The previous snippet indicates to the Android framework that you want it to test every process in your app's package. If you want to test only a subset of your app's processes, you can specify a comma-separated list within the targetProcesses element instead:

             androidx.test.mytestapp:mySecondAppProcessToTest" ... />

Understand the tool's architecture

When you test your app and launch its default process, you might perform a UI interaction, such as a button press, that starts an activity in a secondary process. The system then completes the following steps to enable cross-process testing using Espresso:

  1. The Android Framework creates and starts a new process to follow your app's navigational structure. Each Instrumentation process includes a new instance of AndroidJUnitRunner. At this stage, the 2 instrumentation processes cannot communicate with each other.
  2. Each AndroidJUnitRunner instance registers Espresso as its testing framework.
  3. The 2 instances of AndroidJUnitRunner perform a handshake to establish a connection between each other. At the same time, each AndroidJUnitRunner instance connects all registered clients like Espresso with their respective counterparts in other processes so that these clients can form a direct communication channel between themselves.
  4. Each AndroidJUnitRunner instance continues to look for newly-added instrumentation instances and testing framework clients, establishing additional communication channels as needed.

Figure 1 illustrates the result of this process:

Figure 1. Establishing communication between multiple instrumentation processes using Multiprocess Espresso

Additional resources

For further information on this topic, consult the following resources.