Schedule tasks with WorkManager   Part of Android Jetpack.

WorkManager is the recommended solution for persistent work. Work is persistent when it remains scheduled through app restarts and system reboots. Because most background processing is best accomplished through persistent work, WorkManager is the primary recommended API for background processing.

Types of persistent work

WorkManager handles three types of persistent work:

  • Immediate: Tasks that must begin immediately and complete soon. May be expedited.
  • Long Running: Tasks which might run for longer, potentially longer than 10 minutes.
  • Deferrable: Scheduled tasks that start at a later time and can run periodically.

Figure 1 outlines how the different types of persistent work relate to one another.

Persistent work may be immediate, long running, or deferrable
Figure 1: Types of persistent work.

Similarly, the following table outlines the various types of work.

Type Periodicity How to access
Immediate One time OneTimeWorkRequest and Worker.

For expedited work, call setExpedited() on your OneTimeWorkRequest.

Long Running One time or periodic Any WorkRequest or Worker. Call setForeground() in the Worker to handle the notification.
Deferrable One time or periodic PeriodicWorkRequest and Worker.

For more information regarding how to set up WorkManager, see the Defining your WorkRequests guide.

Features

In addition to providing a simpler and more consistent API, WorkManager has a number of other key benefits:

Work constraints

Declaratively define the optimal conditions for your work to run using work constraints. For example, run only when the device is on an unmetered network, when the device is idle, or when it has sufficient battery.

Robust scheduling

WorkManager allows you to schedule work to run one-time or repeatedly using flexible scheduling windows. Work can be tagged and named as well, allowing you to schedule unique, replaceable work and monitor or cancel groups of work together.

Scheduled work is stored in an internally managed SQLite database and WorkManager takes care of ensuring that this work persists and is rescheduled across device reboots.

In addition, WorkManager adheres to power-saving features and best practices like Doze mode, so you don't have to worry about it.

Expedited work

You can use WorkManager to schedule immediate work for execution in the background. You should use Expedited work for tasks that are important to the user and which complete within a few minutes.

Flexible retry policy

Sometimes work fails. WorkManager offers flexible retry policies, including a configurable exponential backoff policy.

Work chaining

For complex related work, chain individual work tasks together using an intuitive interface that allows you to control which pieces run sequentially and which run in parallel.

Kotlin


val continuation = WorkManager.getInstance(context)
    .beginUniqueWork(
        Constants.IMAGE_MANIPULATION_WORK_NAME,
        ExistingWorkPolicy.REPLACE,
        OneTimeWorkRequest.from(CleanupWorker::class.java)
    ).then(OneTimeWorkRequest.from(WaterColorFilterWorker::class.java))
    .then(OneTimeWorkRequest.from(GrayScaleFilterWorker::class.java))
    .then(OneTimeWorkRequest.from(BlurEffectFilterWorker::class.java))
    .then(
        if (save) {
            workRequest<SaveImageToGalleryWorker>(tag = Constants.TAG_OUTPUT)
        } else /* upload */ {
            workRequest<UploadWorker>(tag = Constants.TAG_OUTPUT)
        }
    )

Java


WorkManager.getInstance(...)
.beginWith(Arrays.asList(workA, workB))
.then(workC)
.enqueue();

For each work task, you can define input and output data for that work. When chaining work together, WorkManager automatically passes output data from one work task to the next.

Built-In threading interoperability

WorkManager integrates seamlessly with Coroutines and RxJava and provides the flexibility to plug in your own asynchronous APIs.

Use WorkManager for reliable work

WorkManager is intended for work that is required to run reliably even if the user navigates off a screen, the app exits, or the device restarts. For example:

  • Sending logs or analytics to backend services.
  • Periodically syncing application data with a server.

WorkManager is not intended for in-process background work that can safely be terminated if the app process goes away. It is also not a general solution for all work that requires immediate execution. Please review the background processing guide to see which solution meets your needs.

Relationship to other APIs

While coroutines are the recommended solution for certain use cases, you should not use them for persistent work. It is important to note that coroutines is a concurrency framework, whereas WorkManager is a library for persistent work. Likewise, you should use AlarmManager for clocks or calendars only.

API Recommended for Relationship to WorkManager
Coroutines All asynchronous work that doesn't need to be persistent. Coroutines are the standard means of leaving the main thread in Kotlin. However, they leave memory once the app closes. For persistent work, use WorkManager.
AlarmManager Alarms only. Unlike WorkManager, AlarmManager wakes a device from Doze mode. It is therefore not efficient in terms of power and resource management. Only use it for precise alarms or notifications such as calendar events — not background work.

Replacing deprecated APIs

The WorkManager API is the recommended replacement for all previous Android background scheduling APIs, including FirebaseJobDispatcher, GcmNetworkManager, and Job Scheduler.

Getting started

Check out the Getting started guide to start using WorkManager in your app.

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