Os tipos de serviço em primeiro plano são obrigatórios

To help developers be more intentional with defining user-facing foreground services, Android 10 introduced the android:foregroundServiceType attribute within the <service> element.

If your app targets Android 14, it must specify appropriate foreground service types. As in previous versions of Android, multiple types can be combined. This list shows the foreground service types to choose from:

If a use case in your app isn't associated with any of these types, we strongly recommend that you migrate your logic to use WorkManager or user-initiated data transfer jobs.

The health, remoteMessaging, shortService, specialUse, and systemExempted types are new in Android 14.

The following code snippet provides an example of a foreground service type declaration in the manifest:

<manifest ...>
  <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.FOREGROUND_SERVICE" />
  <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK" />
    <application ...>
      <service
          android:name=".MyMediaPlaybackService"
          android:foregroundServiceType="mediaPlayback"
          android:exported="false">
      </service>
    </application>
</manifest>

If an app that targets Android 14 doesn't define types for a given service in the manifest, then the system will raise MissingForegroundServiceTypeException upon calling startForeground() for that service.

Declarar nova permissão para usar tipos de serviço em primeiro plano

If apps that target Android 14 use a foreground service, they must declare a specific permission, based on the foreground service type, that Android 14 introduces. These permissions appear in the sections labeled "permission that you must declare in your manifest file" in the intended use cases and enforcement for each foreground service type section on this page.

All of the permissions are defined as normal permissions and are granted by default. Users cannot revoke these permissions.

Incluir tipo de serviço em primeiro plano no momento da execução

The best practice for applications starting foreground services is to use the ServiceCompat version of startForeground() (available in androidx-core 1.12 and higher) where you pass in a bitwise integer of foreground service types. You can choose to pass one or more type values.

Usually, you should declare only the types required for a particular use case. This makes it easier to meet the system's expectations for each foreground service type. In cases where a foreground service is started with multiple types, then the foreground service must adhere to the platform enforcement requirements of all types.

ServiceCompat.startForeground(0, notification, FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_LOCATION)

If the foreground service type is not specified in the call, the type defaults to the values defined in the manifest. If you didn't specify the service type in the manifest, the system throws MissingForegroundServiceTypeException.

If the foreground service needs new permissions after you launch it, you should call startForeground() again and add the new service types. For example, suppose a fitness app runs a running-tracker service that always needs location information, but might or might not need media permissions. You would need to declare both location and mediaPlayback in the manifest. If a user starts a run and just wants their location tracked, your app should call startForeground() and pass just the location service type. Then, if the user wants to start playing audio, call startForeground() again and pass location|mediaPlayback.

Verificações do momento de execução no sistema

The system checks for proper use of foreground service types and confirms that the app has requested the proper runtime permissions or uses the required APIs. For instance, the system expects apps that use the foreground service type FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_LOCATION type to request either ACCESS_COARSE_LOCATION or ACCESS_FINE_LOCATION.

This implies that apps must follow a very specific order of operations when requesting permissions from the user and starting foreground services. Permissions must be requested and granted before the app attempts to call startForeground(). Apps that request the appropriate permissions after the foreground service has been started must change this order of operations and request the permission before starting the foreground service.

The specifics of platform enforcement appear in the sections labeled "runtime requirements" in the intended use cases and enforcement for each foreground service type section on this page.

Casos de uso pretendidos e aplicação de cada tipo de serviço em primeiro plano

In order to use a given foreground service type, you must declare a particular permission in your manifest file, you must fulfill specific runtime requirements, and your app must fulfill one of the intended sets of use cases for that type. The following sections explain the permission that you must declare, the runtime prerequisites, and the intended use cases for each type.

Câmera

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under android:foregroundServiceType
camera
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CAMERA
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CAMERA
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted the CAMERA runtime permission

Note: The CAMERA runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a camera foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Continue to access the camera from the background, such as video chat apps that allow for multitasking.

Dispositivo conectado

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
connectedDevice
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_CONNECTED_DEVICE
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of the following conditions must be true:

Description

Interactions with external devices that require a Bluetooth, NFC, IR, USB, or network connection.

Alternatives

If your app needs to do continuous data transfer to an external device, consider using the companion device manager instead. Use the companion device presence API to help your app stay running while the companion device is in range.

If your app needs to scan for bluetooth devices, consider using the Bluetooth scan API instead.

Sincronização de dados

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
dataSync
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_DATA_SYNC
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_DATA_SYNC
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Data transfer operations, such as the following:

  • Data upload or download
  • Backup-and-restore operations
  • Import or export operations
  • Fetch data
  • Local file processing
  • Transfer data between a device and the cloud over a network
Alternatives

See Alternatives to data sync foreground services for detailed information.

Saúde

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
health
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_HEALTH
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_HEALTH
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of the following conditions must be true:

Note: The BODY_SENSORS runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a health foreground service that uses body sensors while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Any long-running use cases to support apps in the fitness category such as exercise trackers.

Local

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
location
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_LOCATION
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_LOCATION
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted at least one of the following runtime permissions:

Note: The location runtime permissions are subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a location foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Long-running use cases that require location access, such as navigation and location sharing.

Alternatives

If your app needs to be triggered when the user reaches specific locations, consider using the geofence API instead.

Mídia

Tipo de serviço em primeiro plano a ser declarado no manifesto
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaPlayback
Permissão a ser declarada no manifesto
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Constante a ser transmitida para startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PLAYBACK
Pré-requisitos de tempo de execução
Nenhum
Descrição
Continue reproduzindo áudio ou vídeo em segundo plano. Suporte à funcionalidade de gravação de vídeo digital (DVR) no Android TV.
Alternativas
Se você estiver exibindo vídeos picture-in-picture, use o modo picture-in-picture.

Projeção de mídia

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
mediaProjection
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MEDIA_PROJECTION
Runtime prerequisites

Call the createScreenCaptureIntent() method before starting the foreground service. Doing so shows a permission notification to the user; the user must grant the permission before you can create the service.

After you have created the foreground service, you can call MediaProjectionManager.getMediaProjection().

Description

Project content to non-primary display or external device using the MediaProjection APIs. This content doesn't have to be exclusively media content.

Alternatives

To stream media to another device, use the Google Cast SDK.

Microfone

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
microphone
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_MICROPHONE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_MICROPHONE
Runtime prerequisites

Request and be granted the RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission.

Note: The RECORD_AUDIO runtime permission is subject to while-in-use restrictions. For this reason, you cannot create a microphone foreground service while your app is in the background, with a few exceptions. For more information, see Restrictions on starting foreground services that need while-in-use permissions.

Description

Continue microphone capture from the background, such as voice recorders or communication apps.

Ligação telefônica

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
phoneCall
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_PHONE_CALL
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_PHONE_CALL
Runtime prerequisites

At least one of these conditions must be true:

  • App is the default dialer app through the ROLE_DIALER role.
Description

Continue an ongoing call using the ConnectionService APIs.

Alternatives

If you need to make phone, video, or VoIP calls, consider using the android.telecom library.

Consider using CallScreeningService to screen calls.

Mensagens remotas

Tipo de serviço em primeiro plano a ser declarado no manifesto
android:foregroundServiceType
remoteMessaging
Permissão a ser declarada no manifesto
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Constante a ser transmitida para startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_REMOTE_MESSAGING
Pré-requisitos de tempo de execução
Nenhum
Descrição
Transferir mensagens de texto de um dispositivo para outro. Ajuda na continuidade das tarefas de mensagens de um usuário ao trocar de dispositivo.

Serviço curto

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
shortService
Permission to declare in your manifest
None
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Quickly finish critical work that cannot be interrupted or postponed.

This type has some unique characteristics:

  • Can only run for a short period of time (about 3 minutes).
  • No support for sticky foreground services.
  • Cannot start other foreground services.
  • Doesn't require a type-specific permission, though it still requires the FOREGROUND_SERVICE permission.
  • A shortService can only change to another service type if the app is currently eligible to start a new foreground service.
  • A foreground service can change its type to shortService at any time, at which point the timeout period begins.

The timeout for shortService begins from the moment that Service.startForeground() is called. The app is expected to call Service.stopSelf() or Service.stopForeground() before the timeout occurs. Otherwise, the new Service.onTimeout() is called, giving apps a brief opportunity to call stopSelf() or stopForeground() to stop their service.

A short time after Service.onTimeout() is called, the app enters a cached state and is no longer considered to be in the foreground, unless the user is actively interacting with the app. A short time after the app is cached and the service has not stopped, the app receives an ANR. The ANR message mentions FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE. For these reasons, it's considered best practice to implement the Service.onTimeout() callback.

The Service.onTimeout() callback doesn't exist on Android 13 and lower. If the same service runs on such devices, it doesn't receive a timeout, nor does it ANR. Make sure that your service stops as soon as it finishes the processing task, even if it hasn't received the Service.onTimeout() callback yet.

It's important to note that if the timeout of the shortService is not respected, the app will ANR even if it has other valid foreground services or other app lifecycle processes running.

If an app is visible to the user or satisfies one of the exemptions that allow foreground services to be started from the background, calling Service.StartForeground() again with the FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SHORT_SERVICE parameter extends the timeout by another 3 minutes. If the app isn't visible to the user and doesn't satisfy one of the exemptions, any attempt to start another foreground service, regardless of type, causes a ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException.

If a user disables battery optimization for your app, it's still affected by the timeout of shortService FGS.

If you start a foreground service that includes the shortService type and another foreground service type, the system ignores the shortService type declaration. However, the service must still adhere to the prerequisites of the other declared types. For more information, see the Foreground services documentation.

Uso especial

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
specialUse
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SPECIAL_USE
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Covers any valid foreground service use cases that aren't covered by the other foreground service types.

In addition to declaring the FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SPECIAL_USE foreground service type, developers should declare use cases in the manifest. To do so, they specify the <property> element within the <service> element. These values and corresponding use cases are reviewed when you submit your app in the Google Play Console. The use cases you provide are free-form, and you should make sure to provide enough information to let the reviewer see why you need to use the specialUse type.

<service android:name="fooService" android:foregroundServiceType="specialUse">
  <property android:name="android.app.PROPERTY_SPECIAL_USE_FGS_SUBTYPE"
      android:value="explanation_for_special_use"/>
</service>

Sistema isento

Foreground service type to declare in manifest under
android:foregroundServiceType
systemExempted
Permission to declare in your manifest
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
Constant to pass to startForeground()
FOREGROUND_SERVICE_TYPE_SYSTEM_EXEMPTED
Runtime prerequisites
None
Description

Reserved for system applications and specific system integrations, to continue to use foreground services.

To use this type, an app must meet at least one of the following criteria:

Aplicação da política do Google Play para uso de tipos de serviço em primeiro plano

Caso o app seja destinado ao Android 14 ou versões mais recentes, declare os tipos de serviço em primeiro plano na página de conteúdo do app no Play Console (Política > Conteúdo do app). Para mais informações sobre como declarar os tipos de serviço em primeiro plano no Play Console, consulte Noções básicas sobre o serviço em primeiro plano e os requisitos de intent para tela cheia.