동작 변경사항: 모든 앱

Android 14 플랫폼에는 앱에 영향을 줄 수 있는 동작 변경사항이 포함되어 있습니다. targetSdkVersion과 관계없이 Android 14에서 실행되는 모든 앱에 적용되는 동작 변경사항은 다음과 같습니다. 이러한 변경사항을 적절히 지원해야 하는 경우 앱을 테스트한 후 필요에 따라 수정해야 합니다.

또한 Android 14를 타겟팅하는 앱에만 영향을 주는 동작 변경사항 목록을 검토해야 합니다.

핵심 기능

정확한 알람 예약은 기본적으로 거부됨

Exact alarms are meant for user-intentioned notifications, or for actions that need to happen at a precise time. Starting in Android 14, the SCHEDULE_EXACT_ALARM permission is no longer being pre-granted to most newly installed apps targeting Android 13 and higher—the permission is denied by default.

Learn more about the changes to the permission for scheduling exact alarms.

앱이 캐시되는 동안 컨텍스트 등록 브로드캐스트가 대기열에 추가됨

On Android 14, the system can place context-registered broadcasts in a queue while the app is in the cached state. This is similar to the queuing behavior that Android 12 (API level 31) introduced for async binder transactions. Manifest-declared broadcasts aren't queued, and apps are removed from the cached state for broadcast delivery.

When the app leaves the cached state, such as returning to the foreground, the system delivers any queued broadcasts. Multiple instances of certain broadcasts might be merged into one broadcast. Depending on other factors, such as system health, apps might be removed from the cached state, and any previously queued broadcasts are delivered.

앱은 자체 백그라운드 프로세스만 종료할 수 있음

Android 14부터 앱이 killBackgroundProcesses()를 호출하면 API가 자체 앱의 백그라운드 프로세스만 종료할 수 있습니다.

다른 앱의 패키지 이름을 전달하면 이 메서드는 해당 앱의 백그라운드 프로세스에 영향을 미치지 않으며 Logcat에 다음 메시지가 표시됩니다.

Invalid packageName: com.example.anotherapp

앱은 killBackgroundProcesses() API를 사용하거나 이전 OS 버전에서도 다른 앱의 프로세스 수명 주기에 영향을 주려고 해서는 안 됩니다. Android는 캐시된 앱이 백그라운드에서 유지되고 시스템에 메모리가 필요할 때 자동으로 이를 종료하도록 설계되었습니다. 앱이 불필요하게 다른 앱을 종료하면 나중에 이러한 앱을 완전히 다시 시작해야 하므로 시스템 성능이 저하되고 배터리 소모가 늘어날 수 있습니다. 이로 인해 기존의 캐시된 앱을 재개하는 것보다 훨씬 많은 리소스가 소비됩니다.

MTU를 요청하는 첫 번째 GATT 클라이언트의 경우 MTU가 517로 설정됨

Starting from Android 14, the Android Bluetooth stack more strictly adheres to Version 5.2 of the Bluetooth Core Specification and requests the BLE ATT MTU to 517 bytes when the first GATT client requests an MTU using the BluetoothGatt#requestMtu(int) API, and disregards all subsequent MTU requests on that ACL connection.

To address this change and make your app more robust, consider the following options:

  • Your peripheral device should respond to the Android device's MTU request with a reasonable value that can be accommodated by the peripheral. The final negotiated value will be a minimum of the Android requested value and the remote provided value (for example, min(517, remoteMtu))
    • Implementing this fix could require a firmware update for peripheral
  • Alternatively, limit your GATT characteristic writes based on the minimum between the known supported value of your peripheral and the received MTU change
    • A reminder that you should reduce 5 bytes from the supported size for the headers
    • For example: arrayMaxLength = min(SUPPORTED_MTU, GATT_MAX_ATTR_LEN(517)) - 5

앱을 제한된 대기 버킷에 배치할 수 있는 새로운 이유

Android 14 introduces a new reason an app can be placed into the restricted standby bucket. The app's jobs trigger ANR errors multiple times due to onStartJob, onStopJob, or onBind method timeouts. (See JobScheduler reinforces callback and network behavior for changes to onStartJob and onStopJob.)

To track whether or not the app has entered the restricted standby bucket, we recommend logging with the API UsageStatsManager.getAppStandbyBucket() on job execution or UsageStatsManager.queryEventsForSelf() on app startup.

mlock이 64KB로 제한

In Android 14 (API level 34) and higher, the platform reduces the maximum memory that can be locked using mlock() to 64 KB per process. In previous versions, the limit was 64 MB per process. This restriction promotes better memory management across apps and the system. To provide more consistency across devices, Android 14 adds a new CTS test for the new mlock() limit on compatible devices.

시스템에서 캐시된 앱 리소스 사용 적용

By design, an app's process is in a cached state when it's moved to the background and no other app process components are running. Such an app process is subject to being killed due to system memory pressure. Any work that Activity instances perform after the onStop() method has been called and returned, while in this state, is unreliable and strongly discouraged.

Android 14 introduces consistency and enforcement to this design. Shortly after an app process enters a cached state, background work is disallowed, until a process component re-enters an active state of the lifecycle.

Apps that use typical framework-supported lifecycle APIs – such as services, JobScheduler, and Jetpack WorkManager – shouldn't be impacted by these changes.

사용자 환경

사용자가 닫을 수 없는 알림을 경험하는 방식 변경

If your app shows non-dismissable foreground notifications to users, Android 14 has changed the behavior to allow users to dismiss such notifications.

This change applies to apps that prevent users from dismissing foreground notifications by setting Notification.FLAG_ONGOING_EVENT through Notification.Builder#setOngoing(true) or NotificationCompat.Builder#setOngoing(true). The behavior of FLAG_ONGOING_EVENT has changed to make such notifications actually dismissable by the user.

These kinds of notifications are still non-dismissable in the following conditions:

  • When the phone is locked
  • If the user selects a Clear all notification action (which helps with accidental dismissals)

Also, this new behavior doesn't apply to notifications in the following use cases:

  • CallStyle notifications
  • Device policy controller (DPC) and supporting packages for enterprise
  • Media notifications
  • The default Search Selector package

데이터 보안 정보가 더 잘 보임

To enhance user privacy, Android 14 increases the number of places where the system shows the information you have declared in the Play Console form. Currently, users can view this information in the Data safety section on your app's listing in Google Play.

We encourage you to review your app's location data sharing policies and take a moment to make any applicable updates to your app's Google Play Data safety section.

Learn more in the guide about how data safety information is more visible on Android 14.

접근성

비선형 글꼴 크기 200%로 조정

Starting in Android 14, the system supports font scaling up to 200%, providing low-vision users with additional accessibility options that align with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).

If you already use scaled pixels (sp) units to define text sizing, then this change probably won't have a high impact on your app. However, you should perform UI testing with the maximum font size enabled (200%) to ensure that your app can accommodate larger font sizes without impacting usability.

보안

설치 가능한 최소 대상 API 수준

Starting with Android 14, apps with a targetSdkVersion lower than 23 can't be installed. Requiring apps to meet these minimum target API level requirements improves security and privacy for users.

Malware often targets older API levels in order to bypass security and privacy protections that have been introduced in newer Android versions. For example, some malware apps use a targetSdkVersion of 22 to avoid being subjected to the runtime permission model introduced in 2015 by Android 6.0 Marshmallow (API level 23). This Android 14 change makes it harder for malware to avoid security and privacy improvements. Attempting to install an app targeting a lower API level will result in an installation failure, with the following message appearing in Logcat:

INSTALL_FAILED_DEPRECATED_SDK_VERSION: App package must target at least SDK version 23, but found 7

On devices upgrading to Android 14, any apps with a targetSdkVersion lower than 23 will remain installed.

If you need to test an app targeting an older API level, use the following ADB command:

adb install --bypass-low-target-sdk-block FILENAME.apk

미디어 소유자 패키지 이름이 수정될 수 있음

미디어 저장소는 특정 미디어 파일을 저장한 앱을 나타내는 OWNER_PACKAGE_NAME 열에 관한 쿼리를 지원합니다. Android 14부터 다음 조건 중 하나 이상에 해당되지 않으면 이 값이 수정됩니다.

  • 미디어 파일을 저장한 앱에 항상 다른 앱에 표시되는 패키지 이름이 있습니다.
  • 미디어 저장소를 쿼리하는 앱이 QUERY_ALL_PACKAGES 권한을 요청합니다.

개인 정보 보호를 위해 Android에서 패키지 공개 상태를 필터링하는 방법을 자세히 알아보세요.