Cambios en el comportamiento: apps orientadas a Android 14 o versiones posteriores

Al igual que las versiones anteriores, Android 14 incluye cambios de comportamiento que podrían afectar tu app. Los siguientes cambios se aplican exclusivamente a las apps orientadas a Android 14 (nivel de API 34) o versiones posteriores. Si tu app está orientada a Android 14 o versiones posteriores, debes modificarla para que admita estos comportamientos correctamente, cuando corresponda.

Asegúrate también de revisar la lista de cambios de comportamiento que afectan a todas las apps que se ejecutan en Android 14, independientemente de la targetSdkVersion de la app.

Funcionalidad principal

Los tipos de servicio en primer plano son obligatorios

If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, it must specify at least one foreground service type for each foreground service within your app. You should choose a foreground service type that represents your app's use case. The system expects foreground services that have a particular type to satisfy a particular use case.

If a use case in your app isn't associated with any of these types, it's strongly recommended that you migrate your logic to use WorkManager or user-initiated data transfer jobs.

Aplicación del permiso BLUETOOTH_CONNECT en BluetoothAdapter

Android 14 enforces the BLUETOOTH_CONNECT permission when calling the BluetoothAdapter getProfileConnectionState() method for apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher.

This method already required the BLUETOOTH_CONNECT permission, but it was not enforced. Make sure your app declares BLUETOOTH_CONNECT in your app's AndroidManifest.xml file as shown in the following snippet and check that a user has granted the permission before calling getProfileConnectionState.

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.BLUETOOTH_CONNECT" />

Actualizaciones de OpenJDK 17

Android 14 continues the work of refreshing Android's core libraries to align with the features in the latest OpenJDK LTS releases, including both library updates and Java 17 language support for app and platform developers.

A few of these changes can affect app compatibility:

  • Changes to regular expressions: Invalid group references are now disallowed to more closely follow the semantics of OpenJDK. You might see new cases where an IllegalArgumentException is thrown by the java.util.regex.Matcher class, so make sure to test your app for areas that use regular expressions. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the DISALLOW_INVALID_GROUP_REFERENCE flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • UUID handling: The java.util.UUID.fromString() method now does more strict checks when validating the input argument, so you might see an IllegalArgumentException during deserialization. To enable or disable this change while testing, toggle the ENABLE_STRICT_VALIDATION flag using the compatibility framework tools.
  • ProGuard issues: In some cases, the addition of the java.lang.ClassValue class causes an issue if you try to shrink, obfuscate, and optimize your app using ProGuard. The problem originates with a Kotlin library that changes runtime behaviour based on whether Class.forName("java.lang.ClassValue") returns a class or not. If your app was developed against an older version of the runtime without the java.lang.ClassValue class available, then these optimizations might remove the computeValue method from classes derived from java.lang.ClassValue.

JobScheduler refuerza la devolución de llamada y el comportamiento de red

Since its introduction, JobScheduler expects your app to return from onStartJob or onStopJob within a few seconds. Prior to Android 14, if a job runs too long, it stops and fails silently. If your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and exceeds the granted time on the main thread, the app triggers an ANR with the error message "No response to onStartJob" or "No response to onStopJob". Consider migrating to WorkManager, which provides support for asynchronous processing or migrating any heavy work into a background thread.

JobScheduler also introduces a requirement to declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission if using setRequiredNetworkType or setRequiredNetwork constraint. If your app does not declare the ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE permission when scheduling the job and is targeting Android 14 or higher, it will result in a SecurityException.

API de lanzamiento de tarjetas

En el caso de las apps que se orientan a la versión 14 y versiones posteriores, TileService#startActivityAndCollapse(Intent) dejó de estar disponible y ahora arroja una excepción cuando se llama. Si tu app inicia actividades desde tarjetas, usa TileService#startActivityAndCollapse(PendingIntent) en su lugar.

Privacidad

Acceso parcial a fotos y videos

Android 14 introduces Selected Photos Access, which allows users to grant apps access to specific images and videos in their library, rather than granting access to all media of a given type.

This change is only enabled if your app targets Android 14 (API level 34) or higher. If you don't use the photo picker yet, we recommend implementing it in your app to provide a consistent experience for selecting images and videos that also enhances user privacy without having to request any storage permissions.

If you maintain your own gallery picker using storage permissions and need to maintain full control over your implementation, adapt your implementation to use the new READ_MEDIA_VISUAL_USER_SELECTED permission. If your app doesn't use the new permission, the system runs your app in a compatibility mode.

Experiencia del usuario

Notificaciones de intent de pantalla completa seguras

With Android 11 (API level 30), it was possible for any app to use Notification.Builder.setFullScreenIntent to send full-screen intents while the phone is locked. You could auto-grant this on app install by declaring USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT permission in the AndroidManifest.

Full-screen intent notifications are designed for extremely high-priority notifications demanding the user's immediate attention, such as an incoming phone call or alarm clock settings configured by the user. For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, apps that are allowed to use this permission are limited to those that provide calling and alarms only. The Google Play Store revokes default USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT permissions for any apps that don't fit this profile. The deadline for these policy changes is May 31, 2024.

This permission remains enabled for apps installed on the phone before the user updates to Android 14. Users can turn this permission on and off.

You can use the new API NotificationManager.canUseFullScreenIntent to check if your app has the permission; if not, your app can use the new intent ACTION_MANAGE_APP_USE_FULL_SCREEN_INTENT to launch the settings page where users can grant the permission.

Seguridad

Restricciones a intents implícitos y pendientes

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, Android restricts apps from sending implicit intents to internal app components in the following ways:

  • Implicit intents are only delivered to exported components. Apps must either use an explicit intent to deliver to unexported components, or mark the component as exported.
  • If an app creates a mutable pending intent with an intent that doesn't specify a component or package, the system throws an exception.

These changes prevent malicious apps from intercepting implicit intents that are intended for use by an app's internal components.

For example, here is an intent filter that could be declared in your app's manifest file:

<activity
    android:name=".AppActivity"
    android:exported="false">
    <intent-filter>
        <action android:name="com.example.action.APP_ACTION" />
        <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT" />
    </intent-filter>
</activity>

If your app tried to launch this activity using an implicit intent, an exception would be thrown:

Kotlin

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"))

Java

// Throws an exception when targeting Android 14.
context.startActivity(new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION"));

To launch the non-exported activity, your app should use an explicit intent instead:

Kotlin

// This makes the intent explicit.
val explicitIntent =
        Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.apply {
    package = context.packageName
}
context.startActivity(explicitIntent)

Java

// This makes the intent explicit.
Intent explicitIntent =
        new Intent("com.example.action.APP_ACTION")
explicitIntent.setPackage(context.getPackageName());
context.startActivity(explicitIntent);

Los receptores de transmisiones registradas en el tiempo de ejecución deben especificar el comportamiento de exportación

Apps and services that target Android 14 (API level 34) or higher and use context-registered receivers are required to specify a flag to indicate whether or not the receiver should be exported to all other apps on the device: either RECEIVER_EXPORTED or RECEIVER_NOT_EXPORTED, respectively. This requirement helps protect apps from security vulnerabilities by leveraging the features for these receivers introduced in Android 13.

Exception for receivers that receive only system broadcasts

If your app is registering a receiver only for system broadcasts through Context#registerReceiver methods, such as Context#registerReceiver(), then it shouldn't specify a flag when registering the receiver.

Carga más segura del código dinámico

Si tu app se orienta a Android 14 (nivel de API 34) o versiones posteriores y usa la carga dinámica de códigos (DCL), todos los archivos que se carguen de esta forma se deben marcar como de solo lectura. De lo contrario, el sistema arrojará una excepción. Recomendamos que las apps eviten la carga dinámica de código siempre que sea posible, ya que de esta manera aumenta, en gran medida, el riesgo de que una app pueda verse comprometida por la inserción o la manipulación de código.

Si debes cargar un código de forma dinámica, usa el siguiente enfoque para establecer como de solo lectura el archivo que se cargará de esta forma (como un archivo DEX, JAR o APK) en cuanto este se abra y antes de que se escriba cualquier contenido:

Kotlin

val jar = File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar")
val os = FileOutputStream(jar)
os.use {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly()
    // Then write the actual file content
}
val cl = PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader)

Java

File jar = new File("DYNAMICALLY_LOADED_FILE.jar");
try (FileOutputStream os = new FileOutputStream(jar)) {
    // Set the file to read-only first to prevent race conditions
    jar.setReadOnly();
    // Then write the actual file content
} catch (IOException e) { ... }
PathClassLoader cl = new PathClassLoader(jar, parentClassLoader);

Cómo controlar archivos cargados de forma dinámica que ya existen

Para evitar que se arrojen excepciones para los archivos cargados de forma dinámica que ya existen, te recomendamos que borres los archivos y vuelvas a crearlos antes de intentar volver a cargarlos de forma dinámica en tu app. Cuando vuelvas a crearlos, sigue las instrucciones anteriores para marcar los archivos como de solo lectura en el momento de la escritura. Como alternativa, puedes volver a etiquetar los archivos existentes como de solo lectura, pero, en este caso, te recomendamos que primero verifiques la integridad de los archivos (por ejemplo, verifica la firma del archivo en comparación con un valor confiable) para proteger tu app de acciones maliciosas.

Restricciones adicionales sobre el inicio de actividades en segundo plano

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, the system further restricts when apps are allowed to start activities from the background:

These changes expand the existing set of restrictions to protect users by preventing malicious apps from abusing APIs to start disruptive activities from the background.

Salto de directorio del archivo ZIP

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, Android prevents the Zip Path Traversal Vulnerability in the following way: ZipFile(String) and ZipInputStream.getNextEntry() throws a ZipException if zip file entry names contain ".." or start with "/".

Apps can opt-out from this validation by calling dalvik.system.ZipPathValidator.clearCallback().

For apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) or higher, a SecurityException is thrown by MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay in either of the following scenarios:

Your app must ask the user to give consent before each capture session. A single capture session is a single invocation on MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay, and each MediaProjection instance must be used only once.

Handle configuration changes

If your app needs to invoke MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay to handle configuration changes (such as the screen orientation or screen size changing), you can follow these steps to update the VirtualDisplay for the existing MediaProjection instance:

  1. Invoke VirtualDisplay#resize with the new width and height.
  2. Provide a new Surface with the new width and height to VirtualDisplay#setSurface.

Register a callback

Your app should register a callback to handle cases where the user doesn't grant consent to continue a capture session. To do this, implement Callback#onStop and have your app release any related resources (such as the VirtualDisplay and Surface).

If your app doesn't register this callback, MediaProjection#createVirtualDisplay throws an IllegalStateException when your app invokes it.

Actualización de restricciones que no pertenecen al SDK

Android 14 incluye listas actualizadas de este tipo de interfaces que están basadas en la colaboración con desarrolladores de Android y las pruebas internas más recientes. Siempre que sea posible, nos aseguramos de que las alternativas públicas estén disponibles antes de restringir las interfaces que no pertenecen al SDK.

Si tu app no está orientada a Android 14, es posible que algunos de estos cambios no te afecten de inmediato. Sin embargo, aunque actualmente puedes usar algunas interfaces que no pertenecen al SDK (según el nivel de API objetivo al que esté orientada la app), utilizar cualquier método o campo que no pertenezca al SDK siempre implica un gran riesgo de error para la app.

En caso de no saber con certeza si tu app usa este tipo de interfaces, puedes probarla para verificarlo. Si tu app depende de interfaces que no pertenezcan al SDK, deberías planificar una migración hacia otras alternativas que sí lo hagan. Sin embargo, sabemos que algunas apps tienen casos prácticos válidos para usarlas. Si no encuentras una alternativa al uso de una interfaz que no pertenece al SDK para una función de tu app, deberías solicitar una nueva API pública.

Para obtener más información sobre los cambios implementados en esta versión de Android, consulta Actualizaciones a las restricciones de interfaces que no pertenecen al SDK en Android 14. Para obtener más información sobre interfaces que no pertenecen al SDK en general, consulta Restricciones en interfaces que no pertenecen al SDK.