功能與 API 總覽

Android 15 為開發人員推出了強大的新功能和 API。以下各節概略說明這些功能,協助您開始使用相關的 API。

如需新增、修改及移除 API 的詳細清單,請參閱 API 差異比較報表。如要進一步瞭解新的 API,請參閱「Android API 參考資料」,查看新的 API 以方便瀏覽。此外,如要瞭解平台變更可能會影響應用程式的哪些方面,請務必查看 Android 15 對應用程式影響到 Android 15 的行為變更以及不論 targetSdkVersion 為何會影響所有應用程式的行為變更

相機與媒體

Android 15 內含多項功能來改善相機和媒體體驗,並提供各種工具和硬體,協助創作者將願景化為 Android 裝置。

如要進一步瞭解 Android 媒體和相機的最新功能與開發人員解決方案,請參閱 Google I/O 大會的 Building Modern Android Media and Camera Experiences (打造新型 Android 媒體和相機體驗) 講座。

低光源增強

Android 15 introduces Low Light Boost, a new auto-exposure mode available to both Camera 2 and the night mode camera extension. Low Light Boost adjusts the exposure of the Preview stream in low-light conditions. This is different from how the night mode camera extension creates still images, because night mode combines a burst of photos to create a single, enhanced image. While night mode works very well for creating a still image, it can't create a continuous stream of frames, but Low Light Boost can. Thus, Low Light Boost enables new camera capabilities, such as:

  • Providing an enhanced image preview, so users are better able to frame their low-light pictures
  • Scanning QR codes in low light

If you enable Low Light Boost, it automatically turns on when there's a low light level, and turns off when there's more light.

Apps can record off the Preview stream in low-light conditions to save a brightened video.

For more information, see Low Light Boost.

應用程式內相機控制項

Android 15 新增了擴充功能,讓你在支援的裝置上進一步控管相機硬體及其演算法:

  • 進階閃光燈強度調整功能,可讓您在拍照時精確控制 SINGLETORCH 模式的閃光燈強度。

HDR 進步空間控制項

Android 15 會選擇適用於面板的基礎裝置功能和位元深度的 HDR 進步空間。如果頁面含有大量 SDR 內容 (例如顯示單一 HDR 縮圖的訊息應用程式),這項行為最後可能影響 SDR 內容的亮度。Android 15 可讓您使用 setDesiredHdrHeadroom 控制 HDR 進步空間,在 SDR 和 HDR 內容之間取得平衡。

與右側畫面的亮度相比,左側 SDR UI 元素的亮度似乎更加統一,可以模擬 HDR 和 SDR 內容混合時可能發生的上升空間問題。只要調整 HDR 進步空間,就能在 SDR 和 HDR 內容之間取得更平衡。

音量控制項

Android 15 introduces support for the CTA-2075 loudness standard to help you avoid audio loudness inconsistencies and ensure users don't have to constantly adjust volume when switching between content. The system leverages known characteristics of the output devices (headphones and speaker) along with loudness metadata available in AAC audio content to intelligently adjust the audio loudness and dynamic range compression levels.

To enable this feature, you need to ensure loudness metadata is available in your AAC content and enable the platform feature in your app. For this, you instantiate a LoudnessCodecController object by calling its create factory method with the audio session ID from the associated AudioTrack; this automatically starts applying audio updates. You can pass an OnLoudnessCodecUpdateListener to modify or filter loudness parameters before they are applied on the MediaCodec.

// Media contains metadata of type MPEG_4 OR MPEG_D
val mediaCodec = …
val audioTrack = AudioTrack.Builder()
                                .setSessionId(sessionId)
                                .build()
...
// Create new loudness controller that applies the parameters to the MediaCodec
try {
   val lcController = LoudnessCodecController.create(mSessionId)
   // Starts applying audio updates for each added MediaCodec
}

AndroidX media3 ExoPlayer will also be updated to use the LoudnessCodecController APIs for a seamless app integration.

虛擬 MIDI 2.0 裝置

Android 13 已新增使用 USB 連線到使用 USB 連線至 MIDI 2.0 裝置的支援功能,該支援使用通用 MIDI 封包 (UMP) 通訊。Android 15 將 UMP 支援範圍擴及虛擬 MIDI 應用程式,讓撰寫應用程式能夠以虛擬 MIDI 2.0 裝置的形式控制合成器應用程式,就像使用 USB MIDI 2.0 裝置一樣。

提高 AV1 軟體解碼效率

dav1d 標誌

dav1d 是 VideoLAN 的熱門 AV1 軟體解碼器,現可用於硬體中不支援 AV1 解碼的 Android 裝置。dav1d 的效能比舊版 AV1 軟體解碼器高出 3 倍,可讓更多使用者 (包括一些低階和中階裝置) 透過 HD AV1 播放。

目前,應用程式必須以 "c2.android.av1-dav1d.decoder" 的名稱叫用 dav1d,以便選擇加入 dav1d。後續更新會將 dav1d 設為預設 AV1 軟體解碼器。這項支援功能經過標準化及向後移植至收到 Google Play 系統更新的 Android 11 裝置。

開發人員工作效率和工具

在改善效率提升中心的大部分工作中,我們都會以 Android StudioJetpack ComposeAndroid Jetpack 程式庫等工具為基礎,不斷尋找合適的方法來幫助您更輕鬆地實現願景。

OpenJDK 17 更新

Android 15 continues the work of refreshing Android's core libraries to align with the features in the latest OpenJDK LTS releases.

The following key features and improvements are included:

These APIs are updated on over a billion devices running Android 12 (API level 31) and higher through Google Play System updates, so you can target the latest programming features.

改善 PDF

Android 15 includes substantial improvements to the PdfRenderer APIs. Apps can incorporate advanced features such as rendering password-protected files, annotations, form editing, searching, and selection with copy. Linearized PDF optimizations are supported to speed local PDF viewing and reduce resource use.

The latest updates to PDF rendering include features such as searching an embedded PDF file.

The PdfRenderer has been moved to a module that can be updated using Google Play system updates independent of the platform release, and we're supporting these changes back to Android 11 (API level 30) by creating a compatible pre-Android 15 version of the API surface, called PdfRendererPreV.

We value your feedback on the enhancements we've made to the PdfRenderer API surface, and we plan to make it even easier to incorporate these APIs into your app with an upcoming Android Jetpack library.

自動切換語言修正功能

Android 14 新增了裝置端的多語言辨識功能,支援自動切換語言,但這可能會導致字詞遭到捨棄,尤其是在語言切換時,兩個語音之間的停頓幅度較小。Android 15 新增了額外控制項,協助應用程式調整相關用途。EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_INITIAL_ACTIVE_DURATION_TIME_MILLIS 會限制自動切換至音訊工作階段開頭,EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_MATCH_SWITCHES 則會在經過指定數量的切換按鈕後停用語言切換功能。如果您預期會在工作階段應自動偵測單一語言,就很適合使用這些選項。

改良的 OpenType Variable Font API

Android 15 提高 OpenType 變數字型的可用性。您現在可以使用變數字型建立 FontFamily 執行個體,而不必使用 buildVariableFamily API 指定權重軸。文字轉譯器會覆寫 wght 軸的值,使其與顯示的文字相符。

使用新的 API 可大幅簡化程式碼建立 Typeface 的程式碼:

Kotlin

val newTypeface = Typeface.CustomFallbackBuilder(
            FontFamily.Builder(
                Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf").build())
                    .buildVariableFamily())
    .build()

Java

Typeface newTypeface = Typeface.CustomFallbackBuilder(
            new FontFamily.Builder(
                new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf").build())
                    .buildVariableFamily())
    .build();

以往,如要建立相同的 Typeface,會需要更多程式碼:

Kotlin

val oldTypeface = Typeface.CustomFallbackBuilder(
            FontFamily.Builder(
                Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                    .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 400")
                    .setWeight(400)
                    .build())
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 100")
                        .setWeight(100)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 200")
                        .setWeight(200)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 300")
                        .setWeight(300)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 500")
                        .setWeight(500)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 600")
                        .setWeight(600)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 700")
                        .setWeight(700)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 800")
                        .setWeight(800)
                        .build()
                )
                .addFont(
                    Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
                        .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 900")
                        .setWeight(900)
                        .build()
                ).build()
        ).build()

Java

Typeface oldTypeface = new Typeface.CustomFallbackBuilder(
    new FontFamily.Builder(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 400")
            .setWeight(400)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 100")
            .setWeight(100)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 200")
            .setWeight(200)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 300")
            .setWeight(300)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 500")
            .setWeight(500)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 600")
            .setWeight(600)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 700")
            .setWeight(700)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 800")
            .setWeight(800)
            .build()
    )
    .addFont(
        new Font.Builder(assets, "RobotoFlex.ttf")
            .setFontVariationSettings("'wght' 900")
            .setWeight(900)
            .build()
    )
    .build()
).build();

以下範例說明建立 Typeface 時,如何同時顯示新舊 API:

示範如何使用新舊 API 的 Typeface 算繪作業差異

在此範例中,使用舊 API 建立的 Typeface 沒有能力為 350、450、550 和 650 個 Font 執行個體建立準確的字型粗細,因此轉譯器會改回最接近的權重。因此在這個情況下,算繪 300 而非 350,轉譯為 400,而非 450,依此類推。相較之下,使用新 API 建立的 Typeface 會動態建立指定權重的 Font 執行個體,因此同樣會顯示 350、450、550 和 650 的準確權重。

精細的換行符號控制項

Starting in Android 15, a TextView and the underlying line breaker can preserve the given portion of text in the same line to improve readability. You can take advantage of this line break customization by using the <nobreak> tag in string resources or createNoBreakSpan. Similarly, you can preserve words from hyphenation by using the <nohyphen> tag or createNoHyphenationSpan.

For example, the following string resource doesn't include a line break, and renders with the text "Pixel 8 Pro." breaking in an undesirable place:

<resources>
    <string name="pixel8pro">The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.</string>
</resources>

In contrast, this string resource includes the <nobreak> tag, which wraps the phrase "Pixel 8 Pro." and prevents line breaks:

<resources>
    <string name="pixel8pro">The power and brains behind <nobreak>Pixel 8 Pro.</nobreak></string>
</resources>

The difference in how these strings are rendered is shown in the following images:

Layout for a line of text where the phrase "Pixel 8 Pro." isn't wrapped using a <nobreak> tag.
Layout for the same line of text where the phrase "Pixel 8 Pro." is wrapped using a <nobreak> tag.

應用程式封存

Android and Google Play announced support for app archiving last year, allowing users to free up space by partially removing infrequently used apps from the device that were published using Android App Bundle on Google Play. Android 15 now includes OS level support for app archiving and unarchiving, making it easier for all app stores to implement it.

Apps with the REQUEST_DELETE_PACKAGES permission can call the PackageInstaller requestArchive method to request archiving an installed app package, which removes the APK and any cached files, but persists user data. Archived apps are returned as displayable apps through the LauncherApps APIs; users will see a UI treatment to highlight that those apps are archived. If a user taps on an archived app, the responsible installer will get a request to unarchive it, and the restoration process can be monitored by the ACTION_PACKAGE_ADDED broadcast.

圖像

Android 15 提供最新的圖形改善功能,包括 ANGLE 和 Canvas 圖形系統新增功能。

翻新 Android 的 GPU 存取方式

Vulkan logo

Android hardware has evolved quite a bit from the early days where the core OS would run on a single CPU and GPUs were accessed using APIs based on fixed-function pipelines. The Vulkan® graphics API has been available in the NDK since Android 7.0 (API level 24) with a lower-level abstraction that better reflects modern GPU hardware, scales better to support multiple CPU cores, and offers reduced CPU driver overhead — leading to improved app performance. Vulkan is supported by all modern game engines.

Vulkan is Android's preferred interface to the GPU. Therefore, Android 15 includes ANGLE as an optional layer for running OpenGL® ES on top of Vulkan. Moving to ANGLE will standardize the Android OpenGL implementation for improved compatibility, and, in some cases, improved performance. You can test out your OpenGL ES app stability and performance with ANGLE by enabling the developer option in Settings -> System -> Developer Options -> Experimental: Enable ANGLE on Android 15.

The Android ANGLE on Vulkan roadmap

Roadmap of upcoming changes to the Android GPU APIs.

As part of streamlining our GPU stack, going forward we will be shipping ANGLE as the GL system driver on more new devices, with the future expectation that OpenGL/ES will be only available through ANGLE. That being said, we plan to continue support for OpenGL ES on all devices.

Recommended next steps

Use the developer options to select the ANGLE driver for OpenGL ES and test your app. For new projects, we strongly encourage using Vulkan for C/C++.

改善 Canvas

Android 15 持續翻新 Android 的 Canvas 圖形系統,並提供新功能:

  • Matrix44 提供 4x4 矩陣,可轉換在 3D 中操控畫布時應使用的座標。
  • clipShader 會將目前片段與指定的著色器交錯,clipOutShader 則會將片段設為目前片段和著色器的差異,同時將著色器視為 Alpha 遮罩。這個做法可讓您有效率地繪製複雜的形狀。

效能與電池

Android 會繼續致力協助您提升應用程式的效能和品質。Android 15 導入了新的 API,可協助您更有效率地執行應用程式工作、最佳化應用程式效能,以及收集應用程式深入分析資訊。

如要瞭解節約耗電量的最佳做法、對網路和耗電量進行偵錯,以及我們如何改善 Android 15 和新版 Android 中背景工作的電池效能,請參閱 Google I/O 大會的「改善 Android 上背景工作的電池效能」。

應用程式啟動資訊 API

在舊版 Android 中,應用程式啟動程序有點複雜。要判斷應用程式內的是從冷、暖還是熱狀態啟動,並不容易。此外,您也很難知道應用程式在各種啟動階段花費的時間,包括建立程序、呼叫 onCreate、繪製第一個影格等。將 Application 類別例項化時,您無法得知應用程式是從廣播、內容供應器、工作、備份、啟動完成、鬧鐘或 Activity 啟動。

Android 15 上的 ApplicationStartInfo API 提供了以上所有功能。甚至可以選擇在流程中加入自己的時間戳記,以在同一位置收集時間資料。除了收集指標,您還可以使用 ApplicationStartInfo 直接最佳化應用程式啟動作業。舉例來說,您可以在應用程式因為廣播訊息而啟動時,避免在 Application 類別中耗費大量成本的 UI 相關程式庫。

詳細應用程式大小資訊

Since Android 8.0 (API level 26), Android has included the StorageStats.getAppBytes API that summarizes the installed size of an app as a single number of bytes, which is a sum of the APK size, the size of files extracted from the APK, and files that were generated on the device such as ahead-of-time (AOT) compiled code. This number is not very insightful in terms of how your app is using storage.

Android 15 adds the StorageStats.getAppBytesByDataType([type]) API, which lets you get insight into how your app is using up all that space, including APK file splits, AOT and speedup related code, dex metadata, libraries, and guided profiles.

應用程式代管剖析

Android 15 包含全新的 ProfilingManager 類別,可讓您在應用程式中收集剖析資訊。我們打算使用 Android Jetpack API 納入這項功能,可簡化剖析要求的建構程序,但核心 API 則允許收集記憶體快照資料、記憶體快照資料、堆疊取樣等。此方法會向應用程式提供回呼,用於識別輸出檔案並傳送至應用程式檔案目錄。API 會限制頻率,將效能影響降到最低。

改善 SQLite 資料庫

Android 15 introduces new SQLite APIs that expose advanced features from the underlying SQLite engine that target specific performance issues that can manifest in apps.

Developers should consult best practices for SQLite performance to get the most out of their SQLite database, especially when working with large databases or when running latency-sensitive queries.

  • Read-only deferred transactions: when issuing transactions that are read-only (don't include write statements), use beginTransactionReadOnly() and beginTransactionWithListenerReadOnly(SQLiteTransactionListener) to issue read-only DEFERRED transactions. Such transactions can run concurrently with each other, and if the database is in WAL mode, they can run concurrently with IMMEDIATE or EXCLUSIVE transactions.
  • Row counts and IDs: new APIs were added to retrieve the count of changed rows or the last inserted row ID without issuing an additional query. getLastChangedRowCount() returns the number of rows that were inserted, updated, or deleted by the most recent SQL statement within the current transaction, while getTotalChangedRowCount() returns the count on the current connection. getLastInsertRowId() returns the rowid of the last row to be inserted on the current connection.
  • Raw statements: issue a raw SQlite statement, bypassing convenience wrappers and any additional processing overhead that they may incur.

Android 動態效能架構更新

Android 15 continues our investment in the Android Dynamic Performance Framework (ADPF), a set of APIs that allow games and performance intensive apps to interact more directly with power and thermal systems of Android devices. On supported devices, Android 15 will add new ADPF capabilities:

  • A power-efficiency mode for hint sessions to indicate that their associated threads should prefer power saving over performance, great for long-running background workloads.
  • GPU and CPU work durations can both be reported in hint sessions, allowing the system to adjust CPU and GPU frequencies together to best meet workload demands.
  • Thermal headroom thresholds to interpret possible thermal throttling status based on headroom prediction.

To learn more about how to use ADPF in your apps and games, head over to the documentation.

隱私權

Android 15 提供多項功能,可協助應用程式開發人員保護使用者隱私。

螢幕錄影偵測

Android 15 adds support for apps to detect that they are being recorded. A callback is invoked whenever the app transitions between being visible or invisible within a screen recording. An app is considered visible if activities owned by the registering process's UID are being recorded. This way, if your app is performing a sensitive operation, you can inform the user that they're being recorded.

val mCallback = Consumer<Int> { state ->
  if (state == SCREEN_RECORDING_STATE_VISIBLE) {
    // We're being recorded
  } else {
    // We're not being recorded
  }
}

override fun onStart() {
   super.onStart()
   val initialState =
      windowManager.addScreenRecordingCallback(mainExecutor, mCallback)
   mCallback.accept(initialState)
}

override fun onStop() {
    super.onStop()
    windowManager.removeScreenRecordingCallback(mCallback)
}

擴充的 IntentFilter 功能

Android 15 builds in support for more precise Intent resolution through UriRelativeFilterGroup, which contains a set of UriRelativeFilter objects that form a set of Intent matching rules that must each be satisfied, including URL query parameters, URL fragments, and blocking or exclusion rules.

These rules can be defined in the AndroidManifest XML file with the new <uri-relative-filter-group> tag, which can optionally include an android:allow tag. These tags can contain <data> tags that use existing data tag attributes as well as the new android:query and android:fragment attributes.

Here's an example of the AndroidManifest syntax:

<intent-filter>
  <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
  <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />
  <data android:scheme="http" />
  <data android:scheme="https" />
  <data android:domain="astore.com" />
  <uri-relative-filter-group>
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:query="region=na" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:allow="false">
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:query="mobileoptout=true" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:allow="false">
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:fragmentPrefix="faq" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
</intent-filter>

私人空間

The private space can be unlocked and locked to show or hide sensitive apps on a device.

Private space lets users create a separate space on their device where they can keep sensitive apps away from prying eyes, under an additional layer of authentication. The private space uses a separate user profile. The user can choose to use the device lock or a separate lock factor for the private space.

Apps in the private space show up in a separate container in the launcher, and are hidden from the recents view, notifications, settings, and from other apps when the private space is locked. User-generated and downloaded content (such as media or files) and accounts are separated between the private space and the main space. The system sharesheet and the photo picker can be used to give apps access to content across spaces when the private space is unlocked.

Users can't move existing apps and their data into the private space. Instead, users select an install option in the private space to install an app using whichever app store they prefer. Apps in the private space are installed as separate copies from any apps in the main space (new copies of the same app).

When a user locks the private space, the profile is stopped. While the profile is stopped, apps in the private space are no longer active and can't perform foreground or background activities, including showing notifications.

We recommend that you test your app with private space to make sure your app works as expected, especially if your app falls into one of the following categories:

查詢最近所選相片存取權的使用者選項

It is now possible for apps to highlight only the most recently selected photos and videos when partial access to media permissions is granted. This feature can improve the user experience for apps that frequently request access to photos and videos. To use this feature in your app, enable the QUERY_ARG_LATEST_SELECTION_ONLY argument when querying MediaStore through ContentResolver.

Kotlin

val externalContentUri = MediaStore.Files.getContentUri("external")

val mediaColumns = arrayOf(
   FileColumns._ID,
   FileColumns.DISPLAY_NAME,
   FileColumns.MIME_TYPE,
)

val queryArgs = bundleOf(
   // Return only items from the last selection (selected photos access)
   QUERY_ARG_LATEST_SELECTION_ONLY to true,
   // Sort returned items chronologically based on when they were added to the device's storage
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SORT_ORDER to "${FileColumns.DATE_ADDED} DESC",
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION to "${FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE} = ? OR ${FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE} = ?",
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION_ARGS to arrayOf(
       FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_IMAGE.toString(),
       FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO.toString()
   )
)

Java

Uri externalContentUri = MediaStore.Files.getContentUri("external");

String[] mediaColumns = {
    FileColumns._ID,
    FileColumns.DISPLAY_NAME,
    FileColumns.MIME_TYPE
};

Bundle queryArgs = new Bundle();
queryArgs.putBoolean(MediaStore.QUERY_ARG_LATEST_SELECTION_ONLY, true);
queryArgs.putString(MediaStore.QUERY_ARG_SQL_SORT_ORDER, FileColumns.DATE_ADDED + " DESC");
queryArgs.putString(MediaStore.QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION, FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE + " = ? OR " + FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE + " = ?");
queryArgs.putStringArray(MediaStore.QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION_ARGS, new String[] {
    String.valueOf(FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_IMAGE),
    String.valueOf(FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO)
});

Android 版 Privacy Sandbox

Android 15 包含最新的 Android 廣告服務擴充功能,並納入最新版本的 Android 版 Privacy Sandbox。這些額外措施是我們開發新技術的一環,旨在改善使用者隱私並打造行動應用程式中成效良好的個人化廣告體驗。如要進一步瞭解 Android 版 Privacy Sandbox 開發人員預覽版和 Beta 版計畫,請參閱隱私權沙箱頁面,瞭解如何開始使用。

Health Connect

Android 15 integrates the latest extensions around Health Connect by Android, a secure and centralized platform to manage and share app-collected health and fitness data. This update adds support for new data types across fitness, nutrition, skin temperature, training plans, and more.

Skin temperature tracking allows users to store and share more accurate temperature data from a wearable or other tracking device.

Training plans are structured workout plans to help a user achieve their fitness goals. Training plans support includes a variety of completion and performance goals:

Learn more about the latest updates to Health Connect in Android in the Building adaptable experiences with Android Health talk from Google I/O.

分享局部螢幕畫面

Android 15 支援部分螢幕畫面分享功能,因此使用者可以僅分享或錄製應用程式視窗,而非整個裝置螢幕畫面。這項功能 (在 Android 14 QPR2 中首次啟用) 包含可讓應用程式自訂部分螢幕畫面分享體驗的 MediaProjection 回呼。請注意,如果應用程式指定 Android 14 (API 級別 34) 以上版本,則現在每個 MediaProjection 擷取工作階段都必須取得使用者同意聲明

使用者體驗和系統 UI

Android 15 可讓應用程式開發人員和使用者更靈活地控管及設定裝置,以符合自身需求。

如要進一步瞭解如何使用 Android 15 的最新改善功能來改善應用程式的使用者體驗,請參閱 Google I/O 大會的改善 Android 應用程式的使用者體驗

使用 Generated Previews API,讓小工具預覽更豐富

Before Android 15, the only way to provide widget picker previews was to specify a static image or layout resource. These previews often differ significantly from the look of the actual widget when it is placed on the home screen. Also, static resources can't be created with Jetpack Glance, so a Glance developer had to screenshot their widget or create an XML layout to have a widget preview.

Android 15 adds support for generated previews. This means that app widget providers can generate RemoteViews to use as the picker preview, instead of a static resource.

Apps can provide Remote Views to the Widget Picker, so they can update the content in the picker to be more representative of what the user will see.

Push API

Apps can provide generated previews through a push API. Apps can provide previews at any point in their lifecycle, and don't receive an explicit request from the host to provide previews. Previews are persisted in AppWidgetService, and hosts can request them on-demand. The following example loads an XML widget layout resource and sets it as the preview:

AppWidgetManager.getInstance(appContext).setWidgetPreview(
   ComponentName(
       appContext,
       SociaLiteAppWidgetReceiver::class.java
   ),
   AppWidgetProviderInfo.WIDGET_CATEGORY_HOME_SCREEN,
   RemoteViews("com.example", R.layout.widget_preview)
)

The expected flow is:

  1. At any time, the widget provider calls setWidgetPreview. The provided previews are persisted in AppWidgetService with other provider info.
  2. setWidgetPreview notifies hosts of an updated preview through the AppWidgetHost.onProvidersChanged callback. In response, the widget host reloads all of its provider information.
  3. When displaying a widget preview, the host checks AppWidgetProviderInfo.generatedPreviewCategories, and if the chosen category is available, calls AppWidgetManager.getWidgetPreview to return the saved preview for this provider.

When to call setWidgetPreview

Because there is no callback to provide previews, apps can choose to send previews at any point when they are running. How often to update the preview depends on the widget's use case.

The following list describes the two main categories of preview use cases:

  • Providers that show real data in their widget previews, such as personalized or recent information. These providers can set the preview once the user has signed in or has done initial configuration in their app. After this, they can set up a periodic task to update the previews at their chosen cadence. Examples of this type of widget could be a photo, calendar, weather or news widget.
  • Providers that show static information in previews or quick-action widgets that don't display any data. These providers can set previews once, when the app first launches. Examples of this type of widget include a drive quick actions widget or chrome shortcuts widget.

Some providers might show static previews on the hub mode picker, but real information on the homescreen picker. These providers should follow the guidance for both of these use cases to set previews.

子母畫面

Android 15 導入了子母畫面 (PiP) 異動,確保進入子母畫面模式後,轉換過程更加順暢。如果應用程式將 UI 元素重疊在主要 UI 上方 (用於子母畫面),這項功能就非常實用。

開發人員可以使用 onPictureInPictureModeChanged 回呼定義邏輯,切換重疊 UI 元素的顯示設定。當子母畫面進入或結束動畫時,就會觸發這個回呼。從 Android 15 開始,PictureInPictureUiState 類別會包含新狀態。

透過這個新的 UI 狀態,指定 Android 15 的應用程式會在子母畫面動畫開始時,觀察系統透過 isTransitioningToPip() 叫用 Activity#onPictureInPictureUiStateChanged 回呼的情況。許多 UI 元素在子母畫面模式下,與應用程式無關,例如檢視畫面或版面配置中含有建議、即將播放的影片、評分和標題等資訊。應用程式進入子母畫面模式時,使用 onPictureInPictureUiStateChanged 回呼隱藏這些 UI 元素。當應用程式從子母畫面視窗進入全螢幕模式時,請使用 onPictureInPictureModeChanged 回呼取消隱藏這些元素,如以下範例所示:

override fun onPictureInPictureUiStateChanged(pipState: PictureInPictureUiState) {
        if (pipState.isTransitioningToPip()) {
          // Hide UI elements
        }
    }
override fun onPictureInPictureModeChanged(isInPictureInPictureMode: Boolean) {
        if (isInPictureInPictureMode) {
          // Unhide UI elements
        }
    }

這項快速瀏覽權限切換功能會在子母畫面視窗裡,顯示不相關的 UI 元素,確保子母畫面進入動畫時能夠流暢流暢,不會閃爍。

改善「零打擾」規則

AutomaticZenRule 可讓應用程式自訂注意力管理 (零打擾) 規則,並決定啟用或停用這類規則的時機。為改善使用者體驗,Android 15 大幅改善了這些規則。以下為包含的強化項目:

  • AutomaticZenRule 新增類型,以允許系統為某些規則套用特殊處理方式。
  • AutomaticZenRule 新增圖示,讓模式更易於識別。
  • AutomaticZenRule 中新增 triggerDescription 字串,說明應在哪些條件對使用者啟用。
  • 已將 ZenDeviceEffects 新增至 AutomaticZenRule,可讓規則觸發灰階顯示、夜間模式或調暗桌布等項目。

為通知管道設定 VibrationEffect

Android 15 支援使用 NotificationChannel.setVibrationEffect,透過管道為傳入的通知設定複合式震動,讓使用者不必查看裝置,就能區分不同類型的通知。

大螢幕與板型規格

Android 15 可讓應用程式充分運用 Android 板型規格,包括大螢幕、折疊式裝置和折疊式裝置。

改善大螢幕多工處理效能

Android 15 gives users better ways to multitask on large screen devices. For example, users can save their favorite split-screen app combinations for quick access and pin the taskbar on screen to quickly switch between apps. This means that making sure your app is adaptive is more important than ever.

Google I/O has sessions on Building adaptive Android apps and Building UI with the Material 3 adaptive library that can help, and our documentation has more to help you Design for large screens.

遮蔽螢幕支援

應用程式可以宣告 Android 15 用來宣告的屬性,以便讓您的 ApplicationActivity 顯示在支援的可滑動裝置小封面螢幕。這些畫面太小,無法視為 Android 應用程式的相容目標,但您的應用程式可以選擇支援這些畫面,藉此在更多地方提供您的應用程式。

連線能力

Android 15 會更新平台,讓應用程式存取通訊和無線技術的最新進展。

衛星支援

Android 15 持續擴充對衛星連線的平台支援,並加入部分 UI 元素,以確保在衛星連線環境中提供一致的使用者體驗。

應用程式可以使用 ServiceState.isUsingNonTerrestrialNetwork() 偵測裝置是否連上衛星,以便進一步瞭解無法使用完整網路服務的原因。此外,Android 15 支援簡訊、多媒體訊息應用程式,以及預先載入的 RCS 應用程式,可使用衛星連線收發訊息。

裝置連上衛星時,畫面上會出現通知。

更順暢的 NFC 體驗

Android 15 is working to make the tap to pay experience more seamless and reliable while continuing to support Android's robust NFC app ecosystem. On supported devices, apps can request the NfcAdapter to enter observe mode, where the device listens but doesn't respond to NFC readers, sending the app's NFC service PollingFrame objects to process. The PollingFrame objects can be used to auth ahead of the first communication to the NFC reader, allowing for a one tap transaction in many cases.

In addition, apps can now register a filter on supported devices so they can be notified of polling loop activity, which allows for smooth operation with multiple NFC-aware applications.

錢包角色

Android 15 導入了新的錢包角色,可更緊密地與使用者偏好的錢包應用程式整合。這個角色會取代 NFC 預設的感應支付設定。使用者可以依序前往「設定」>「應用程式」>「預設應用程式」,管理錢包角色持有人。

針對付款類別中註冊的 AID 進行 NFC 感應支付時,系統會使用「錢包」角色。除非在前景中執行註冊相同 AID 的另一個應用程式,否則感應功能會一律傳送至錢包角色持有者。

這個角色也能用來判斷在啟用錢包 QuickAccess 圖塊後應前往的位置。將角色設為「None」時,則無法使用 QuickAccess 設定方塊,且付款類別的 NFC 輕觸動作只會傳送至前景應用程式。

安全性

Android 15 可協助您提升應用程式安全性、保護應用程式資料,並讓使用者進一步掌握及控管自己的資料。請參閱 Google I/O 的「保護 Android 使用者安全」的演講,瞭解我們採取哪些措施來改善使用者保護措施,以及保護應用程式免受新的威脅。

將 Credential Manager 與自動填入功能整合

Starting with Android 15, developers can link specific views like username or password fields with Credential Manager requests, making it easier to provide a tailored user experience during the sign-in process. When the user focuses on one of these views, a corresponding request is sent to Credential Manager. The resulting credentials are aggregated across providers and displayed in autofill fallback UIs, such as inline suggestions or drop-down suggestions. The Jetpack androidx.credentials library is the preferred endpoint for developers to use and will soon be available to further enhance this feature in Android 15 and higher.

整合輕觸註冊與登入功能和生物特徵辨識提示

Credential Manager integrates biometric prompts into the credential creation and sign-in processes, eliminating the need for providers to manage biometric prompts. As a result, credential providers only need to focus on the results of the create and get flows, augmented with the biometric flow result. This simplified process creates a more efficient and streamlined credential creation and retrieval process.

端對端加密金鑰管理服務

我們將在 Android 15 中推出 E2eeContactKeysManager,藉由提供 OS 層級 API 來儲存加密編譯公開金鑰,進而在 Android 應用程式中加入端對端加密 (E2EE)。

E2eeContactKeysManager 的設計旨在與平台聯絡應用程式整合,讓使用者能集中管理及驗證聯絡人的公開金鑰。

內容 URI 的權限檢查

Android 15 introduces a new set of APIs that perform permission checks on content URIs:

無障礙功能

Android 15 新增了多項功能,為使用者改善無障礙功能。

改善點字

在 Android 15 中,我們讓 TalkBack 能夠支援透過 USB 和安全藍牙採用 HID 標準的點字顯示器。

如同滑鼠和鍵盤所使用的標準,Android 日後將支援更多點字顯示器。

國際化

Android 15 新增了各種功能,可滿足以不同語言使用裝置時的使用者體驗。

CJK 變數字型

自 Android 15 起,中文、日文和韓文 (CJK) 語言的字型檔案現在是可變的字型。變數字型為 CJK 語言的廣告素材字體排版開啟了新的可能性。設計人員可以探索更多樣式,建立視覺效果引人注目的版面配置,而這些版面配置原本難以實現或無法實現。

中文、日文和韓文 (CJK) 語言的可變字型會以不同字型寬度顯示。

跨字元理由

Starting with Android 15, text can be justified utilizing letter spacing by using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_CHARACTER. Inter-word justification was first introduced in Android 8.0 (API level 26), and inter-character justification provides similar capabilities for languages that use the whitespace character for segmentation, such as Chinese, Japanese, and others.

Layout for Japanese text using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_NONE.
Layout for English text using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_NONE.


Layout for Japanese text using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_WORD.
Layout for English text using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_WORD.


Layout for Japanese text using the new JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_CHARACTER.
Layout for English text using the new JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_CHARACTER.

自動換行設定

Android started supporting phrase-based line breaks for Japanese and Korean in Android 13 (API level 33). However, while phrase-based line breaks improve the readability of short lines of text, they don't work well for long lines of text. In Android 15, apps can now apply phrase-based line breaks only for short lines of text, using the LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_AUTO option. This option selects the best word style option for the text.

For short lines of text, phrase-based line breaks are used, functioning the same as LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_PHRASE, as shown in the following image:

For short lines of text, LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_AUTO applies phrase-based line breaks to improve the readability of the text. This is the same as applying LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_PHRASE.

For longer lines of text, LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_AUTO uses a no line-break word style, functioning the same as LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_NONE, as shown in the following image:

For long lines of text, LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_AUTO applies no line-break word style to improve the readability of the text. This is the same as applying LINE_BREAK_WORD_STYLE_NONE.

新日本亨塔加納字型

在 Android 15 中,系統預設會隨附新的字型檔案 (名為 Hentaigana)。Hentaigana 角色的獨特形狀可以為藝術品或設計增添獨特的風格,同時也有助於保存古代日本文獻的準確傳輸與理解程度。

日文 Hentaigana 字型的字元和文字樣式。

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