Mudanças de comportamento: apps destinados ao Android 15 ou versões mais recentes

Assim como as versões anteriores, o Android 15 inclui mudanças de comportamento que podem afetar seu app. As mudanças de comportamento a seguir se aplicam exclusivamente a apps destinados ao Android 15 ou versões mais recentes. Caso seu app seja direcionado ao Android 15 ou versões mais recentes, modifique o app para oferecer suporte a esses comportamentos de forma adequada, quando aplicável.

Consulte também a lista de mudanças de comportamento que afetam todos os apps executados no Android 15, independente da targetSdkVersion do app.

Principal recurso

O Android 15 modifica ou expande vários recursos principais do sistema Android.

Mudanças nos serviços em primeiro plano

We are making the following changes to foreground services with Android 15.

Data sync foreground service timeout behavior

Android 15 introduces a new timeout behavior to dataSync for apps targeting Android 15 or higher. This behavior also applies to the new mediaProcessing foreground service type.

The system permits an app's dataSync services to run for a total of 6 hours in a 24-hour period, after which the system calls the running service's Service.onTimeout(int, int) method (introduced in Android 15). At this time, the service has a few seconds to call Service.stopSelf(). When Service.onTimeout() is called, the service is no longer considered a foreground service. If the service does not call Service.stopSelf(), a failure will occur with this error message: "A foreground service of <fgs_type> did not stop within its timeout: <component_name>". In Beta 2, the failure message is shown as an ANR, but in a future Beta release, this failure message will throw a custom exception.

To avoid problems with this behavior change, you can do one or more of the following:

  1. Have your service implement the new Service.onTimeout(int, int) method. When your app receives the callback, make sure to call stopSelf() within a few seconds. (If you don't stop the app right away, the system generates a failure.)
  2. Make sure your app's dataSync services don't run for more than a total of 6 hours in any 24-hour period (unless the user interacts with the app, resetting the timer).
  3. Only start dataSync foreground services as a result of direct user interaction; since your app is in the foreground when the service starts, your service has the full six hours after the app goes to the background.
  4. Instead of using a dataSync foreground service, use an alternative API.

If your app's dataSync foreground services have run for 6 hours in the last 24, you cannot start another dataSync foreground service unless the user has brought your app to the foreground (which resets the timer). If you try to start another dataSync foreground service, the system throws ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException with an error message like "Time limit already exhausted for foreground service type dataSync".

New media processing foreground service type

Android 15 introduces a new foreground service type, mediaProcessing. This service type is appropriate for operations like transcoding media files. For example, a media app might download an audio file and need to convert it to a different format before playing it. You can use a mediaProcessing foreground service to make sure the conversion continues even while the app is in the background.

The system permits an app's mediaProcessing services to run for a total of 6 hours in a 24-hour period, after which the system calls the running service's Service.onTimeout(int, int) method (introduced in Android 15). At this time, the service has a few seconds to call Service.stopSelf(). If the service does not call Service.stopSelf(), a failure will occur with this error message: "A foreground service of <fgs_type> did not stop within its timeout: <component_name>". In Beta 2, the failure message is shown as an ANR, but in a future Beta release, this failure message will throw a custom exception.

To avoid getting an ANR, you can do one of the following:

  1. Have your service implement the new Service.onTimeout(int, int) method. When your app receives the callback, make sure to call stopSelf() within a few seconds. (If you don't stop the app right away, the system generates a failure.)
  2. Make sure your app's mediaProcessing services don't run for more than a total of 6 hours in any 24-hour period (unless the user interacts with the app, resetting the timer).
  3. Only start mediaProcessing foreground services as a result of direct user interaction; since your app is in the foreground when the service starts, your service has the full six hours after the app goes to the background.
  4. Instead of using a mediaProcessing foreground service, use an alternative API, like WorkManager.

If your app's mediaProcessing foreground services have run for 6 hours in the last 24, you cannot start another mediaProcessing foreground service unless the user has brought your app to the foreground (which resets the timer). If you try to start another mediaProcessing foreground service, the system throws ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException with an error message like "Time limit already exhausted for foreground service type mediaProcessing".

For more information about the mediaProcessing service type, see Changes to foreground service types for Android 15: Media processing.

Restrictions on BOOT_COMPLETED broadcast receivers launching foreground services

There are new restrictions on BOOT_COMPLETED broadcast receivers launching foreground services. BOOT_COMPLETED receivers are not allowed to launch the following types of foreground services:

If a BOOT_COMPLETED receiver tries to launch any of those types of foreground services, the system throws ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException.

Restrictions on starting foreground services while an app holds the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission

Previously, if an app held the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission, it could launch a foreground service even if the app was currently in the background (as discussed in exemptions from background start restrictions).

If an app targets Android 15, this exemption is now narrower. The app now needs to have the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission and also have a visible overlay window. That is, the app needs to first launch a TYPE_APPLICATION_OVERLAY window and the window needs to be visible before you start a foreground service.

If your app attempts to start a foreground service from the background without meeting these new requirements (and it does not have some other exemption), the system throws ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException.

If your app declares the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission and launches foreground services from the background, it may be affected by this change. If your app gets a ForegroundServiceStartNotAllowedException, check your app's order of operations and make sure your app already has an active overlay window before it attempts to start a foreground service from the background. You can check if your overlay window is currently visible by calling View.getWindowVisibility(), or you can override View.onWindowVisibilityChanged() to get notified whenever the visibility changes.

Mudanças no momento em que os apps podem modificar o estado global do modo Não perturbe

Os apps direcionados ao Android 15 não podem mais mudar o estado ou a política global do Não perturbe em um dispositivo, seja modificando as configurações do usuário ou desativando o modo Não perturbe. Em vez disso, os apps precisam contribuir com um AutomaticZenRule, que o sistema combina em uma política global com o esquema most-restrictive-policy-wins atual. As chamadas para APIs existentes que anteriormente afetaram o estado global (setInterruptionFilter, setNotificationPolicy) resultam na criação ou atualização de um AutomaticZenRule implícito, que pode ser ativado e desativado dependendo do ciclo de chamadas dessas chamadas de API.

Essa mudança afeta apenas o comportamento observável se o app estiver chamando setInterruptionFilter(INTERRUPTION_FILTER_ALL) e espera que essa chamada desative um AutomaticZenRule que foi ativado anteriormente pelos proprietários.

Mudanças no OpenJDK 17

Android 15 continues the work of refreshing Android's core libraries to align with the features in the latest OpenJDK LTS releases.

One of these changes can affect app compatibility for apps targeting Android 15:

  • Changes to string formatting APIs: Validation of argument index, flags, width, and precision are now more strict when using the following String.format() and Formatter.format() APIs:

    For example, the following exception is thrown when an argument index of 0 is used (%0 in the format string):

    IllegalFormatArgumentIndexException: Illegal format argument index = 0
    

    In this case, the issue can be fixed by using an argument index of 1 (%1 in the format string).

  • Changes to component type of Arrays.asList(...).toArray(): When using Arrays.asList(...).toArray(), the component type of the resulting array is now an Object—not the type of the underlying array's elements. So the following code throws a ClassCastException:

    String[] elements = (String[]) Arrays.asList("one", "two").toArray();
    

    For this case, to preserve String as the component type in the resulting array, you could use Collection.toArray(Object[]) instead:

    String[] elements = Arrays.asList("two", "one").toArray(new String[0]);
    
  • Changes to language code handling: When using the Locale API, language codes for Hebrew, Yiddish, and Indonesian are no longer converted to their obsolete forms (Hebrew: iw, Yiddish: ji, and Indonesian: in). When specifying the language code for one of these locales, use the codes from ISO 639-1 instead (Hebrew: he, Yiddish: yi, and Indonesian: id).

  • Changes to random int sequences: Following the changes made in https://bugs.openjdk.org/browse/JDK-8301574, the following Random.ints() methods now return a different sequence of numbers than the Random.nextInt() methods do:

    Generally, this change shouldn't result in app-breaking behavior, but your code shouldn't expect the sequence generated from Random.ints() methods to match Random.nextInt().

Segurança

O Android 15 inclui mudanças que promovem a segurança do sistema para ajudar a proteger apps e usuários contra apps maliciosos.

Lançamentos de atividades em segundo plano protegidas

Android 15 protects users from malicious apps and gives them more control over their devices by adding changes that prevent malicious background apps from bringing other apps to the foreground, elevating their privileges, and abusing user interaction. Background activity launches have been restricted since Android 10 (API level 29).

Block apps that don't match the top UID on the stack from launching activities

Malicious apps can launch another app's activity within the same task, then overlay themselves on top, creating the illusion of being that app. This "task hijacking" attack bypasses current background launch restrictions because it all occurs within the same visible task. To mitigate this risk, Android 15 adds a flag that blocks apps that don't match the top UID on the stack from launching activities. To opt in for all of your app's activities, update the allowCrossUidActivitySwitchFromBelow attribute in your app's AndroidManifest.xml file:

<application android:allowCrossUidActivitySwitchFromBelow="false" >

The new security measures are active if all of the following are true:

  • The app performing the launch targets Android 15.
  • The app on top of the task stack targets Android 15.
  • Any visible activity has opted in to the new protections

If the security measures are enabled, apps might return home, rather than the last visible app, if they finish their own task.

Other changes

In addition to the restriction for UID matching, these other changes are also included:

  • Change PendingIntent creators to block background activity launches by default. This helps prevent apps from accidentally creating a PendingIntent that could be abused by malicious actors.
  • Don't bring an app to the foreground unless the PendingIntent sender allows it. This change aims to prevent malicious apps from abusing the ability to start activities in the background. By default, apps are not allowed to bring the task stack to the foreground unless the creator allows background activity launch privileges or the sender has background activity launch privileges.
  • Control how the top activity of a task stack can finish its task. If the top activity finishes a task, Android will go back to whichever task was last active. Moreover, if a non-top activity finishes its task, Android will go back to the home screen; it won't block the finish of this non-top activity.
  • Prevent launching arbitrary activities from other apps into your own task. This change prevents malicious apps from phishing users by creating activities that appear to be from other apps.
  • Block non-visible windows from being considered for background activity launches. This helps prevent malicious apps from abusing background activity launches to display unwanted or malicious content to users.

Intents mais seguras

Android 15 introduces new security measures to make intents safer and more robust. These changes are aimed at preventing potential vulnerabilities and misuse of intents that can be exploited by malicious apps. There are two main improvements to the security of intents in Android 15:

  • Match target intent-filters: Intents that target specific components must accurately match the target's intent-filter specifications. If you send an intent to launch another app's activity, the target intent component needs to align with the receiving activity's declared intent-filters.
  • Intents must have actions: Intents without an action will no longer match any intent-filters. This means that intents used to start activities or services must have a clearly defined action.

Kotlin


fun onCreate() {
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(VmPolicy.Builder()
        .detectUnsafeIntentLaunch()
        .build()
    )
}

Java


public void onCreate() {
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(new VmPolicy.Builder()
            .detectUnsafeIntentLaunch()
            .build());
}

Experiência do usuário e interface do sistema

O Android 15 inclui algumas mudanças que se destinam a criar uma experiência do usuário mais consistente e intuitiva.

Mudanças no encarte da janela

Há duas mudanças relacionadas a encartes de janela no Android 15: de ponta a ponta é aplicada por padrão, e também há mudanças de configuração, como a configuração padrão das barras do sistema.

Edge-to-edge enforcement

Apps are edge-to-edge by default on devices running Android 15 if the app is targeting Android 15.

An app that targets Android 14 and is not edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device.


An app that targets Android 15 and is edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device. This app mostly uses Material 3 Compose Components that automatically apply insets. This screen is not negatively impacted by the Android 15 edge-to-edge enforcement.

This is a breaking change that might negatively impact your app's UI. The changes affect the following UI areas:

  • Gesture handle navigation bar
    • Transparent by default.
    • Bottom offset is disabled so content draws behind the system navigation bar unless insets are applied.
    • setNavigationBarColor and R.attr#navigationBarColor are deprecated and don't affect gesture navigation.
    • setNavigationBarContrastEnforced and R.attr#navigationBarContrastEnforced continue to have no effect on gesture navigation.
  • 3-button navigation
    • Opacity set to 80% by default, with color possibly matching the window background.
    • Bottom offset disabled so content draws behind the system navigation bar unless insets are applied.
    • setNavigationBarColor and R.attr#navigationBarColor are set to match the window background by default. The window background must be a color drawable for this default to apply. This API is deprecated but continues to affect 3-button navigation.
    • setNavigationBarContrastEnforced and R.attr#navigationBarContrastEnforced is true by default, which adds an 80% opaque background across 3-button navigation.
  • Status bar
    • Transparent by default.
    • The top offset is disabled so content draws behind the status bar unless insets are applied.
    • setStatusBarColor and R.attr#statusBarColor are deprecated and have no effect on Android 15.
    • setStatusBarContrastEnforced and R.attr#statusBarContrastEnforced are deprecated but still have an effect on Android 15.
  • Display cutout
    • layoutInDisplayCutoutMode of non-floating windows must be LAYOUT_IN_DISPLAY_CUTOUT_MODE_ALWAYS. SHORT_EDGES, NEVER and DEFAULT are interpreted as ALWAYS so that users don't see a Black bar caused by the display cutout and appear edge-to-edge.

The following example shows an app before and after targeting Android 15, and before and after applying insets.

An app that targets Android 14 and is not edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device.
An app that targets Android 15 and is edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device. However, many elements are now occluded by the status bar, 3-button navigation bar, or display cutout due to the Android 15 edge-to-edge enforcements. Occluded UI includes the Material 2 top app bar, floating action buttons, and list items.
An app that targets Android 15, is edge to edge on an Android 15 device and applies insets so that UI is not occluded.
What to check if your app is already edge-to-edge

If your app is already edge-to-edge and applies insets, you are mostly unimpacted, except in the following scenarios. However, even if you think you aren't impacted, we recommend you test your app.

  • You have a non-floating window, such as an Activity that uses SHORT_EDGES, NEVER or DEFAULT instead of LAYOUT_IN_DISPLAY_CUTOUT_MODE_ALWAYS. If your app crashes on launch, this might be due to your splashscreen. You can either upgrade the core splashscreen dependency to 1.2.0-alpha01 or later or set window.attributes.layoutInDisplayCutoutMode = WindowManager.LayoutInDisplayCutoutMode.always.
  • There might be lower-traffic screens with occluded UI. Verify these less-visited screens don't have occluded UI. Lower-traffic screens include:
    • Onboarding or sign-in screens
    • Settings pages
What to check if your app is not already edge-to-edge

If your app is not already edge-to-edge, you are most likely impacted. In addition to the scenarios for apps that are already edge-to-edge, you should consider the following:

  • If your app uses Material 3 Components ( androidx.compose.material3) in compose, such as TopAppBar, BottomAppBar, and NavigationBar, these components are likely not impacted because they automatically handle insets.
  • If your app is using Material 2 Components ( androidx.compose.material) in Compose, these components don't automatically handle insets. However, you can get access to the insets and apply them manually. In androidx.compose.material 1.6.0 and later, use the windowInsets parameter to apply the insets manually for BottomAppBar, TopAppBar, BottomNavigation, and NavigationRail. Likewise, use the contentWindowInsets parameter for Scaffold.
  • If your app uses views and Material Components (com.google.android.material), most views-based Material Components such as BottomNavigationView, BottomAppBar, NavigationRailView, or NavigationView, handle insets and require no additional work. However, you need to add android:fitsSystemWindows="true" if using AppBarLayout.
  • For custom composables, apply the insets manually as padding. If your content is within a Scaffold, you can consume insets using the Scaffold padding values. Otherwise, apply padding using one of the WindowInsets.
  • If your app is using views and BottomSheet, SideSheet or custom containers, apply padding using ViewCompat.setOnApplyWindowInsetsListener. For RecyclerView, apply padding using this listener and also add clipToPadding="false".
What to check if your app must offer custom background protection

If your app must offer custom background protection to 3-button navigation or the status bar, you app should place a composable or view behind the system bar using WindowInsets.Type#tappableElement() to get the 3-button navigation bar height or WindowInsets.Type#statusBars.

Additional edge-to-edge resources

See the Edge to Edge Views and Edge to Edge Compose guides for additional considerations on applying insets.

Deprecated APIs

The following APIs are now deprecated:

Stable configuration

If your app targets Android 15 or higher, Configuration no longer excludes the system bars. If you use the screen size in the Configuration class for layout calculation, you should replace it with better alternatives like an appropriate ViewGroup, WindowInsets, or WindowMetricsCalculator depending on your need.

Configuration has been available since API 1. It is typically obtained from Activity.onConfigurationChanged. It provides information like window density, orientation, and sizes. One important characteristic about the window sizes returned from Configuration is that it previously excluded the system bars.

The configuration size is typically used for resource selection, such as /res/layout-h500dp, and this is still a valid use case. However, using it for layout calculation has always been discouraged. If you do so, you should move away from it now. You should replace the use of Configuration with something more suitable depending on your use case.

If you use it to calculate the layout, use an appropriate ViewGroup, such as CoordinatorLayout or ConstraintLayout. If you use it to determine the height of the system navbar, use WindowInsets. If you want to know the current size of your app window, use computeCurrentWindowMetrics.

The following list describes the fields affected by this change:

O atributo eleganteTextHeight adota o padrão de "true"

For apps targeting Android 15, the elegantTextHeight TextView attribute becomes true by default, replacing the compact font used by default with some scripts that have large vertical metrics with one that is much more readable. The compact font was introduced to prevent breaking layouts; Android 13 (API level 33) prevents many of these breakages by allowing the text layout to stretch the vertical height utilizing the fallbackLineSpacing attribute.

In Android 15, the compact font still remains in the system, so your app can set elegantTextHeight to false to get the same behavior as before, but it is unlikely to be supported in upcoming releases. So, if your app supports the following scripts: Arabic, Lao, Myanmar, Tamil, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Telugu or Thai, test your app by setting elegantTextHeight to true.

elegantTextHeight behavior for apps targeting Android 14 (API level 34) and lower.
elegantTextHeight behavior for apps targeting Android 15.

A largura da TextView muda para formas de letras complexas.

In previous versions of Android, some cursive fonts or languages that have complex shaping might draw the letters in the previous or next character's area. In some cases, such letters were clipped at the beginning or ending position. Starting in Android 15, a TextView allocates width for drawing enough space for such letters and allows apps to request extra paddings to the left to prevent clipping.

Because this change affects how a TextView decides the width, TextView allocates more width by default if the app targets Android 15 or higher. You can enable or disable this behavior by calling the setUseBoundsForWidth API on TextView.

Because adding left padding might cause a misalignment for existing layouts, the padding is not added by default even for apps that target Android 15 or higher. However, you can add extra padding to preventing clipping by calling setShiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang.

The following examples show how these changes can improve text layout for some fonts and languages.

Standard layout for English text in a cursive font. Some of the letters are clipped. Here is the corresponding XML:

<TextView
    android:fontFamily="cursive"
    android:text="java" />
Layout for the same English text with additional width and padding. Here is the corresponding XML:

<TextView
    android:fontFamily="cursive"
    android:text="java"
    android:useBoundsForWidth="true"
    android:shiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang="true" />
Standard layout for Thai text. Some of the letters are clipped. Here is the corresponding XML:

<TextView
    android:text="คอมพิวเตอร์" />
Layout for the same Thai text with additional width and padding. Here is the corresponding XML:

<TextView
    android:text="คอมพิวเตอร์"
    android:useBoundsForWidth="true"
    android:shiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang="true" />

Altura da linha padrão com reconhecimento de localidade para EditText

In previous versions of Android, the text layout stretched the height of the text to meet the line height of the font that matched the current locale. For example, if the content was in Japanese, because the line height of the Japanese font is slightly larger than the one of a Latin font, the height of the text became slightly larger. However, despite these differences in line heights, the EditText element was sized uniformly, regardless of the locale being used, as illustrated in the following image:

Three boxes representing EditText elements that can contain text from English (en), Japanese (ja), and Burmese (my). The height of the EditText is the same, even though these languages have different line heights from each other.

For apps targeting Android 15, a minimum line height is now reserved for EditText to match the reference font for the specified Locale, as shown in the following image:

Three boxes representing EditText elements that can contain text from English (en), Japanese (ja), and Burmese (my). The height of the EditText now includes space to accommodate the default line height for these languages' fonts.

If needed, your app can restore the previous behavior by specifying the useLocalePreferredLineHeightForMinimum attribute to false, and your app can set custom minimum vertical metrics using the setMinimumFontMetrics API in Kotlin and Java.

Câmera e mídia

O Android 15 faz as seguintes mudanças no comportamento da câmera e da mídia para apps destinados ao Android 15 ou versões mais recentes.

Restrições à solicitação da seleção de áudio

Apps that target Android 15 must be the top app or running an audio-related foreground service in order to request audio focus. If an app attempts to request focus when it does not meet one of these requirements, the call returns AUDIOFOCUS_REQUEST_FAILED.

A foreground service is considered audio-related if its type is mediaPlayback, camera, microphone, or phoneCall.

You can learn more about audio focus at Manage audio focus.

Atualização das restrições não SDK

O Android 15 inclui listas atualizadas de interfaces não SDK restritas com base na colaboração com desenvolvedores Android e nos testes internos mais recentes. Antes de restringirmos interfaces não SDK, sempre que possível, garantimos que haja alternativas públicas disponíveis.

Caso seu app não seja destinado ao Android 15, é possível que algumas dessas mudanças não afetem você imediatamente. No entanto, embora seja possível acessar algumas interfaces externas ao SDK dependendo do nível da API de destino, o uso de qualquer método ou campo não SDK sempre apresenta um alto risco de corromper o app.

Se você não tiver certeza se seu app usa interfaces não SDK, teste-o para descobrir. Se ele depende de interfaces não SDK, comece a planejar uma migração para alternativas SDK. No entanto, entendemos que alguns apps têm casos de uso válidos para interfaces não SDK. Caso você não encontre uma alternativa para deixar de usar uma interface não SDK em um recurso no app, solicite uma nova API pública.

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Para saber mais sobre as mudanças dessa versão do Android, consulte Atualizações para restrições de interfaces não SDK no Android 15. Para saber mais sobre interfaces não SDK em geral, consulte Restrições para interfaces não SDK.